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Wind Energy Science The interactive open-access journal of the European Academy of Wind Energy
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© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  05 Feb 2020

05 Feb 2020

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A revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal WES.

Global Trends of Large Wind Farm Performance based on High Fidelity Simulations

Søren Juhl Andersen1, Simon-Philippe Breton2,3, Björn Witha4,5, Stefan Ivanell2, and Jens Nørkær Sørensen1 Søren Juhl Andersen et al.
  • 1DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
  • 2Uppsala University, Dep. of Earth Sciences, Campus Gotland, Cramérgatan 3, 62 157 Visby, Sweden
  • 3Environment and Climate Change Canada, 2121 Route Transcanadienne, Dorval, Québec, H9P 1J3, Canada
  • 4ForWind – Center for Wind Energy Research, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Küpkersweg 70, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany
  • 5energy meteo systems GmbH, Oskar-Homt-Str. 1, 26131 Oldenburg, Germany

Abstract. A total of 18 high fidelity simulations of large wind farms have been performed by three different institutions using various inflow conditions and simulation setups. The setups differ in how the atmospheric turbulence, wind shear and wind turbine rotors are modelled, encompassing a wide range of commonly used modelling methods within the LES framework. Various turbine spacings, atmospheric turbulence intensity levels and incoming wind velocities are considered. The work performed is part of the International Energy Agency(IEA) wind task Wakebench, and is a continuation of previously published results on the subject. This work aims at providing a methodology for studying the general flow behavior in large wind farms in a systematic way. It seeks to investigate and further understand the global trends of wind farm performance, with a focus on variability.

Parametric studies first map the effect of various parameters on large aligned wind farms, including wind turbine spacing, wind shear and atmospheric turbulence intensity. The results are then aggregated and compared to engineering models as well as LES results from other investigations to provide an overall picture of how much power can be extracted from large wind farms operating below rated level. The simple engineering models, although they cannot capture the variability features, capture the general trends well. Response surfaces are constructed based on the large amount of aggregated LES data corresponding to a wide range of large wind farm layouts. The response surfaces form a basis for mapping the inherently varying power characteristics inside very large wind farm, including how much the turbines are able to exploit the turbulent fluctuations within the wind farms and estimating the associated uncertainty, which is valuable information useful for risk mitigation.

Søren Juhl Andersen et al.

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Søren Juhl Andersen et al.

Søren Juhl Andersen et al.


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Latest update: 13 Aug 2020
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
The complexity of wind farm operation increases as the wind farms get larger and larger. Therefore, researchers from three universities have simulated numerous different large wind farms as part of an international benchmark. The study shows how simple engineering models can capture the general trends, but high fidelity simulations are required in order to quantify the variability and uncertainty associated with power production of the wind farms, hence the potential profitability and risks.
The complexity of wind farm operation increases as the wind farms get larger and larger....