21 Oct 2021

21 Oct 2021

Review status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal WES.

Comparing and validating intra-farm and farm-to-farm wakes across different mesoscale and high-resolution wake models

Jana Fischereit, Kurt Schaldemose Hansen, Xiaoli Guo Larsén, Maarten Paul van der Laan, Pierre-Elouan Réthoré, and Juan Pablo Murcia Leon Jana Fischereit et al.
  • DTU Wind Energy, Denmark

Abstract. Numerical wind resource modelling across scales from mesoscale to turbine scale is of increasing interest due to the expansion of offshore wind energy. Offshore, wind farm wakes can last several tens kilometres downstream and thus affect the wind resources of a large area. So far, scale-specific models have been developed and it remains unclear, how well the different model types can represent intra-farm wakes, farm-to-farm wakes as well as the wake recovery behind a farm. Thus, in the present analysis the simulation of a set of wind farm models of different complexity, fidelity, scale and computational costs are compared among each other and with SCADA data. In particular, two mesoscale wind farm parameterizations implemented in the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), the Explicit Wake Parameterization (EWP) and the Wind Farm Parameterization (FIT), two different high-resolution RANS simulations using PyWakeEllipSys equipped with an actuator disk model, and three rapid engineering wake models from the PyWake suite are selected. The models are applied to the Nysted and Rødsand II wind farms, which are located in the Fehmarn Belt in the Baltic Sea.

Based on the performed simulations, we can conclude that average intra-farm variability can be captured reasonable well with WRF+FIT using a resolution of 2 km, a typical resolution of mesoscale models for wind energy applications, while WRF+EWP underestimates wind speed deficits. However, both parameterizations can be used to estimate median wind resource reduction caused by an upstream farm. All considered engineering wake models from the PyWake suite simulate intra-farm wakes comparable to the high fidelity RANS simulations. However, they considerably underestimate the farm wake effect of an upstream farm although with different magnitudes. Overall, the higher computational costs of PyWakeEllipSys and WRF compared to PyWake pay off in terms of accuracy for situations when farm-to-farm wakes are important.

Jana Fischereit et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wes-2021-106', Anonymous Referee #1, 26 Oct 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on wes-2021-106', Anonymous Referee #2, 08 Nov 2021
  • RC3: 'Comment on wes-2021-106', Nicolai Gayle Nygaard, 09 Nov 2021
  • AC1: 'Comment on wes-2021-106', Jana Fischereit, 22 Dec 2021

Jana Fischereit et al.

Jana Fischereit et al.


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Short summary
Wind turbines extract kinetic energy from the flow to create electricity. This induces a wake of reduced wind speed downstream of a turbine and consequently downstream of a wind farm. Different types of numerical models have been developed to calculate this effect. In this study, we compare models of different complexity, together with measurements over two wind farms. We find that higher fidelity models perform better and the considered rapid models cannot fully capture the wake effect.