Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-2021-108
https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-2021-108

  22 Oct 2021

22 Oct 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal WES.

Fast Yaw Optimization for Wind Plant Wake Steering Using Boolean Yaw Angles

Andrew P. J. Stanley, Christopher Bay, Rafael Mudafort, and Paul Fleming Andrew P. J. Stanley et al.
  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Wind Technology Center, Boulder, CO 80303 USA

Abstract. In wind plants, turbines can be yawed into the wind to steer their wakes away from downstream turbines and achieve an overall increase in plant power. Mathematical optimization is typically used to determine the best yaw angles at which to operate the turbines in a plant. In this paper, we present a new method to rapidly determine the yaw angles in a wind plant. In this method, we define the turbine yaw angles as Boolean—either yawed at a predefined angle or nonyawed—as opposed to the typical methods of formulating yaw angles as continuous or with fine discretizations. We then optimize which turbines should be yawed with a greedy algorithm that sweeps through the turbines from the most upstream to the most downstream. We demonstrate that our new Boolean optimization method can find turbine yaw angles that perform well compared to a traditionally used gradient-based optimizer where the yaw angles are defined as continuous. There is less than 0.6 % difference in the optimized power between the two optimization methods for randomly placed turbine layouts. Additionally, we show that our new method is much more computationally efficient than the traditional method. For plants with nonzero optimal yaw angles, our new method is generally able to solve for the turbine yaw angles 50–150 times faster, and in some extreme cases up to 500 times faster, than the traditional method.

Andrew P. J. Stanley et al.

Status: open (until 03 Dec 2021)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wes-2021-108', Andrew Scholbrock, 28 Oct 2021 reply

Andrew P. J. Stanley et al.

Model code and software

stanley2021-yaw-optimization Andrew P. J. Stanley https://github.com/pjstanle/stanley2021-yaw-optimization

Andrew P. J. Stanley et al.

Viewed

Total article views: 263 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
195 63 5 263 0 1
  • HTML: 195
  • PDF: 63
  • XML: 5
  • Total: 263
  • BibTeX: 0
  • EndNote: 1
Views and downloads (calculated since 22 Oct 2021)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 22 Oct 2021)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 205 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 205 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 
Latest update: 26 Nov 2021
Download
Short summary
In wind plants, turbines can be yawed to steer their wakes away from downstream turbines and achieve an increase in plant power. The yaw angles become expensive to solve for in large farms. This paper presents a new method to solve for the optimal turbine yaw angles in a wind plant. The yaw angles are defined as Boolean variables – each turbine is either yawed or nonyawed. With this formulation, most of the gains from wake steering can be reached with a large reduction in computational expense.