04 Jan 2022
04 Jan 2022
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal WES.

The revised FLORIDyn model: Implementation of heterogeneous flow and the Gaussian wake

Marcus Becker1, Bastian Ritter2, Bart Doekemeijer3, Daan van der Hoek1, Ulrich Konigorski2, Dries Allaerts4, and Jan-Willem van Wingerden1 Marcus Becker et al.
  • 1Delft Center for Systems and Control, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft, Netherlands
  • 2Control Systems & Mechatronics Lab, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Landgraf Georg Str. 4, 64283 Darmstadt, Germany
  • 3National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, 80401, USA
  • 4Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft, Netherlands

Abstract. In this paper a new version of the FLOw Redirection and Induction Dynamics (FLORIDyn) model is presented. The new model uses the three-dimensional parametric Gaussian FLORIS model and can provide dynamic wind farm simulations at low computational cost under heterogeneous and changing wind conditions.

Both FLORIS and FLORIDyn are parametric models which can be used to simulate wind farms, evaluate controller performance and can serve as a control-oriented model. One central element in which they differ is in their representation of flow dynamics: FLORIS neglects these and provides a computationally very cheap approximation of the mean wind farm flow. FLORIDyn defines a framework which utilizes this low computational cost of FLORIS to simulate basic wake dynamics: this is achieved by creating so called Observation Points (OPs) at each time step at the rotor plane which inherit the turbine state.

In this work, we develop the initial FLORIDyn framework further considering multiple aspects. The underlying FLORIS wake model is replaced by a Gaussian wake model. The distribution and characteristics of the OPs are adapted to account for the new parametric model, but also to take complex flow conditions into account. To achieve this, a mathematical approach is developed to combine the parametric model and the changing, heterogeneous world conditions and link them with each OP. We also present a computational lightweight wind field model to allow for a simulation environment in which heterogeneous flow conditions are possible.

FLORIDyn is compared to SOWFA simulations in three- and nine-turbine cases under static and changing environmental conditions.The results show a good agreement with the timing of the impact of upstream state changes on downstream turbines. They also show a good agreement in terms of how wakes are displaced by wind direction changes and when the resulting velocity deficit is experienced by downstream turbines. A good fit of the mean generated power is ensured by the underlying FLORIS model. In the three turbine case, FLORIDyn simulates 4 s simulation time in 24.49 ms computational time. The resulting new FLORIDyn model proves to be a computationally attractive and capable tool for model based dynamic wind farm control.

Marcus Becker et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wes-2021-154', Jaime Liew, 16 Feb 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Marcus Becker, 10 Jun 2022
  • RC2: 'Review wes-2021-154', Paul van der Laan, 03 May 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Marcus Becker, 10 Jun 2022

Marcus Becker et al.

Marcus Becker et al.


Total article views: 767 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
528 225 14 767 14 5
  • HTML: 528
  • PDF: 225
  • XML: 14
  • Total: 767
  • BibTeX: 14
  • EndNote: 5
Views and downloads (calculated since 04 Jan 2022)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 04 Jan 2022)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 749 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 749 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
Latest update: 08 Aug 2022
Short summary
In this paper we present a revised dynamic control-oriented wind farm model. The model can simulate turbine wake behaviour in heterogeneous and changing wind conditions at a very low computational cost. It utilizes a three-dimensional turbine wake model which also allows to capture vertical wind speed differences. The model could be used to maximise the power generation of with farms, even during events like a wind direction change. It is publicly available and open for further developed.