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Wind Energy Science The interactive open-access journal of the European Academy of Wind Energy
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Wind turbines are frequently placed in forests. We investigate the potential of using satellites to characterise the land surface for wind flow modelling. Maps of forest properties are generated from satellite data and converted to flow modelling maps. Validation is carried out at ten sites. Using the novel satellite-based maps leads to lower errors of the power density than land cover databases, which demonstrates the value of using satellite-based land cover maps for flow modelling.
Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-2021-28
https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-2021-28

  06 Apr 2021

06 Apr 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal WES.

Satellite-based estimation of roughness lengths and displacement heights for wind resource modelling

Rogier Floors1, Merete Badger1, Ib Troen1, Kenneth Grogan2, and Finn-Hendrik Permien3 Rogier Floors et al.
  • 1Technical University of Denmark, DTU Wind Energy, Risø Campus, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
  • 2DHI GRAS A/S, Agern Alle 5, 2970 Hørsholm, Denmark
  • 3Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy A/S, Borupvej 16, 7330 Brande, Denmark

Abstract. Wind turbines in northern Europe are frequently placed in forests, which sets new wind resource modelling requirements. Accurate mapping of the land surface can be challenging at forested sites due to sudden transitions between patches with very different aerodynamic properties, e.g. tall trees, clearings, and lakes. Tree growth and deforestation can lead to temporal changes of the forest. Global or pan-European land cover data sets fail to resolve these forest properties, aerial lidar campaigns are costly and infrequent, and hand-digitization is labour-intensive and subjective. Here, we investigate the potential of using satellite observations to characterise the land surface in connection with wind energy flow modelling using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). Collocated maps of the land cover, tree height, and Leaf Area Index (LAI) have been generated based on observations from the Sentinel-1 and -2 missions combined with the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2). Three different forest canopy models are applied to convert these maps to roughness lengths and displacement heights. We introduce a modified model, which can process detailed land cover maps containing both roughness lengths and displacement heights. Extensive validation is carried out through cross-prediction analyses at ten well-instrumented sites in various landscapes. We demonstrate that using the novel satellite-based input maps leads to lower cross-prediction errors of the wind power density than land cover databases at a coarser spatial resolution. Differences in the cross-predictions resulting from the three different canopy models are minor. The satellite-based maps show cross-prediction errors close to those obtained from aerial lidar scans and hand-digitised maps. This demonstrates the value of using detailed satellite-based land cover maps for micro-scale flow modelling.

Rogier Floors et al.

Status: open (until 18 Jun 2021)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wes-2021-28', Anonymous Referee #1, 25 May 2021 reply
  • RC2: 'Comment on wes-2021-28', Anonymous Referee #2, 13 Jun 2021 reply
  • RC3: 'Comment on wes-2021-28', Anonymous Referee #3, 14 Jun 2021 reply

Rogier Floors et al.

Rogier Floors et al.

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Short summary
Wind turbines are frequently placed in forests. We investigate the potential of using satellites to characterise the land surface for wind flow modelling. Maps of forest properties are generated from satellite data and converted to flow modelling maps. Validation is carried out at ten sites. Using the novel satellite-based maps leads to lower errors of the power density than land cover databases, which demonstrates the value of using satellite-based land cover maps for flow modelling.
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