Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-2021-61
https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-2021-61

  06 Jul 2021

06 Jul 2021

Review status: a revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal WES and is expected to appear here in due course.

Results from a Wake Steering Experiment at a Commercial Wind Plant: Investigating the Wind Speed Dependence of Wake Steering Performance

Eric Simley1, Paul Fleming1, Nicolas Girard2, Lucas Alloin3, Emma Godefroy3, and Thomas Duc3 Eric Simley et al.
  • 1National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, 80401, USA
  • 2ENGIE Digital, 59 rue Denuzière, 69002 Lyon, France
  • 3ENGIE Green France, 59 rue Denuzière, 69002 Lyon, France

Abstract. Wake steering is a wind farm control strategy in which upstream wind turbines are misaligned with the wind to redirect their wakes away from downstream turbines, thereby increasing the net wind plant power production and reducing fatigue loads generated by wake turbulence. In this paper, we present results from a wake steering experiment at a commercial wind plant involving two wind turbines spaced 3.7 rotor diameters apart. During the three-month experiment period, we estimate that wake steering reduced wake losses by 5.7 % for the wind direction sector investigated. After applying a long-term correction based on the site wind rose, the reduction in wake losses increases to 9.8 %. As a function of wind speed, we find large energy improvements near cut-in wind speed, where wake steering can prevent the downstream wind turbine from shutting down. Yet for wind speeds between 6–8 m/s, we observe little change in performance with wake steering. However, wake steering was found to improve energy production significantly for below-rated wind speeds from 8–12 m/s. By measuring the relationship between yaw misalignment and power production using a nacelle lidar, we attribute much of the improvement in wake steering performance at higher wind speeds to a significant reduction in the power loss of the upstream turbine as wind speed increases. Additionally, we find higher wind direction variability at lower wind speeds, which contributes to poor performance in the 6–8 m/s wind speed bin because of slow yaw controller dynamics. Further, we compare the measured performance of wake steering to predictions using the FLORIS (FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady State) wind farm control tool coupled with a wind direction variability model. Although the achieved yaw offsets at the upstream wind turbine fall short of the intended yaw offsets, we find that they are predicted well by the wind direction variability model. When incorporating the predicted achieved yaw offsets, estimates of the energy improvement from wake steering using FLORIS closely match the experimental results.

Eric Simley et al.

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wes-2021-61', Anonymous Referee #1, 23 Jul 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on wes-2021-61', Anonymous Referee #2, 09 Aug 2021
  • AC1: 'Author response to reviewers (wes-2021-61)', Eric Simley, 16 Sep 2021

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wes-2021-61', Anonymous Referee #1, 23 Jul 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on wes-2021-61', Anonymous Referee #2, 09 Aug 2021
  • AC1: 'Author response to reviewers (wes-2021-61)', Eric Simley, 16 Sep 2021

Eric Simley et al.

Eric Simley et al.

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Short summary
Wake steering is a wind farm control strategy in which upstream wind turbines are misaligned with the wind to deflect their low-velocity wakes away from downstream turbines, increasing overall power production. Here, we present results from a two-turbine wake steering experiment at a commercial wind plant. By analyzing the wind speed dependence of wake steering, we find that the energy gained tends to increase for higher wind speeds because of both the wind conditions and turbine operation.