06 Jul 2021

06 Jul 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal WES.

Design, performance and wake characterization of a scaled wind turbine with closed-loop controls

Emmanouil M. Nanos1, Carlo L. Bottasso1, Filippo Campagnolo1, Stefano Letizia2, G. Valerio Iungo2, and Mario A. Rotea2 Emmanouil M. Nanos et al.
  • 1Wind Energy Institute, Technische Universität München, Garching bei München, D-85748, Germany
  • 2Center for Wind Energy, Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W. Campbell Road, Richardson, TX 75080-3021, USA

Abstract. This paper describes the design and characterization of a scaled wind turbine model, conceived to support wake and wind farm control experiments in a boundary layer wind tunnel. The turbine has a rotor diameter of 0.6~meters, and was designed to match the circulation distribution of a target conceptual full-scale turbine at its design tip speed ratio. In order to enable the testing of plant-level control strategies, the model is equipped with closed-loop pitch, torque and yaw control, and is sensorized with integrated load cells, as well as with rotor azimuth and blade pitch encoders.

After describing the design of the turbine, its performance and wake characteristics are assessed by conducting experiments in two different wind tunnels, in laminar and turbulent conditions, collecting wake data with different measurement techniques. A large-eddy simulator coupled to an actuator-line model is used to develop a digital replica of the turbine and of the wind tunnel. For increased accuracy, the polars of the low-Reynolds airfoil used in the numerical model are tuned directly from measurements obtained from the rotor in operation in the wind tunnel. Results indicate that the scaled turbine performs as expected, measurements are repeatable and consistent, and the wake appears to have a realistic behavior in line with expectations and with a similar slightly larger scaled model turbine. Furthermore, the predictions of the numerical model are well in line with experimental observations.

Emmanouil M. Nanos et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wes-2021-66', Christian Navid Nayeri, 17 Aug 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on wes-2021-66', Anonymous Referee #2, 23 Aug 2021

Emmanouil M. Nanos et al.

Emmanouil M. Nanos et al.


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Short summary
The paper describes in detail the design of a scaled wind turbine, for studying wakes and wake control applications in the known, controllable and repeatable conditions of a wind tunnel. The scaled model is characterized by conducting experiments in two wind tunnels, in different conditions, using different measurement equipment. Results are also compared to predictions obtained with models of various fidelity. The analysis indicates that the model fully satisfies the initial requirements.