29 Jul 2021
29 Jul 2021
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal WES.

Evaluation of different APC operating strategies considering turbine loading and power dynamics for grid support

Florian Pöschke and Horst Schulte Florian Pöschke and Horst Schulte
  • Department of Engineering I, Control Engineering, Univ. of Applied Sciences HTW Berlin, Germany

Abstract. This work focuses on the design, implementation, and implications of different operational strategies for wind turbines when providing active power control (APC). APC is a necessary functionality for contributing to the stabilization of the electrical grid. Specifically, two different operational strategies are used as the foundation for a model-based control design that allows the turbine to follow a given power demand. The first relies on keeping a constant rotational speed while varying the generator torque to match the power demand. The second approach varies both, the generator torque and rotational speed of the turbine to yield the desired power output. In the power reduction mode, both operational strategies employ the pitch to maintain the desired rotational speed of the turbine and therefore desired power output. The attainable power dynamics of the two closed-loop systems to varying power demands are analyzed and compared. Reduced-order models formulated as transfer functions and suitable for the integration into an upper-level control design are proposed. It is found that the first strategy involving only the generator torque while keeping a constant rotational speed provides significantly faster power control authority. Further, the resulting fatigue loading in turbulent wind conditions is briefly discussed for the two operational strategies, where constant operational storage is emulated to enable a bidirectional variation of the power output. Without any additional load reducing control loops, the results also suggest that this operational strategy is more favorable with regard to the resulting loading of the turbine structure. The simulation studies are conducted for the 5 MW reference turbine using FAST.

Florian Pöschke and Horst Schulte

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wes-2021-80', Anonymous Referee #1, 13 Aug 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Florian Pöschke, 10 Sep 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on wes-2021-80', Anonymous Referee #2, 17 Dec 2021
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Florian Pöschke, 20 Dec 2021

Florian Pöschke and Horst Schulte

Florian Pöschke and Horst Schulte


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Short summary
The paper compares two different strategies for wind turbine control when following a power command. Using model-based control design for a 5 MW wind turbine, a comparison in terms of the mechanical loading and the attainable power dynamics is drawn based on simulation studies. Reduced-order models suitable for the integration into an upper-level control design are discussed. The dependence of the turbine behavior on the chosen strategy is illustrated and analyzed.