18 Jan 2022
18 Jan 2022
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal WES.

Experimental analysis of the dynamic inflow effect due to coherent gusts

Frederik Berger1, Lars Neuhaus1, David Onnen1, Michael Hölling1, Gerard Schepers2,3, and Martin Kühn1 Frederik Berger et al.
  • 1ForWind - Center for Wind Energy Research, University of Oldenburg, Institute of Physics, Küpkersweg 70, 26127 Oldenburg, Germany
  • 2TNO Energy Transition, Petten,1755 LE, The Netherlands
  • 3Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Engineering, Groningen, 9747 AS, the Netherlands

Abstract. The dynamic inflow effect describes the unsteady aerodynamic response to fast changes in rotor loading, due to the inertia of the wake. For pitch actuation and fast rotor speed changes this effect leads to load overshoots. The effect is suspected to be also relevant for gust situations, however this was never shown. The objective of the paper is to proove the dynamic inflow effect due to gusts and compare dynamic inflow engineering models to corresponding measurements. A 1.8 m diameter model turbine is used in the large wind tunnel of ForWind – University of Oldenburg with an active grid to impress rotor uniform gusts on the flow. The campaign features load and velocity measurements of the axial flow in the rotor plane. The unsteady dynamic inflow effect is investigated by comparing two experimental cases. Firstly, a dynamic measurement during a gust situation is performed. Secondly, quasi-steady loads and axial velocities are interpolated from a steady characterisation experiment according to the gust wind speed. By comparing both cases, the influence attributed to the dynamic inflow effect is isolated. Further comparisons to a typical Blade Element Momentum code and a higher fidelity Free VortexWake Model are performed. Based on analytical considerations an improvemed formulation of the Øye dynamic inflow model is proposed. The experiment shows a dynamic inflow effect due to gusts in the loads and axial velocity measurements. It leads to a reduction in load and axial velocity amplitudes and consequently also lower fatigue loading. The higher fidelity model shows a similar impact of the dynamic inflow effect. In contrast, the commonly used Øye engineering model in the BEM code predicts an increase in load amplitude and thus higher fatigue loads. The improved Øye engineering model however catches the observed dynamic inflow effect due to gusts in accordance to the experiment and FVWM simulations. An amplification of induced velocities, seen in the experiment and FVWM simulation, causes the reduced load amplitudes. Therefore, classic dynamic inflow models, which filter the induced velocity, cannot predict the effect. The proposed improvement to additionally consider the wake velocity for the filter of the dynamic inflow engineering model, proves to be a straight forward but also effective modification. In conclusion, these new experimental findings on dynamic inflow due to gusts and improvements to the Øye model enable improvements in wind turbine design by catching the related lower fatigue loads.

Frederik Berger et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wes-2022-2', Anonymous Referee #1, 10 Feb 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on wes-2022-2', Georg Raimund Pirrung, 11 Mar 2022
  • AC1: 'response to comments on wes-2022-2', Frederik Berger, 28 Apr 2022

Frederik Berger et al.

Frederik Berger et al.


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Short summary
We proof the dynamic inflow effect due to gusts in wind tunnel experiments with MoWiTO 1.8 in the large wind tunnel of ForWind – University of Oldenburg, where we created coherent gusts with an active grid. The effect is isolated in loads and rotor flow by comparison of a quasi-steady and a dynamic case. The observed effect is not caught by common dynamic inflow engineering models. An improvement to the Øye dynamic inflow model is proposed matching experiment and corresponding FVWM simulations.