Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-2022-21
https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-2022-21
 
03 Mar 2022
03 Mar 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal WES.

An investigation of mesoscale wind direction changes and their consideration in engineering models

Anna von Brandis1, Gabriele Centurelli2, Jonas Schmidt1, Lukas Vollmer1, Bughsin' Djath3, and Martin Dörenkämper1 Anna von Brandis et al.
  • 1Fraunhofer IWES, Küpkersweg 70, D-26129 Oldenburg, Germany
  • 2ForWind - Center for Wind Energy Research, University of Oldenburg, Küpkersweg 70, D-26129 Oldenburg, Germany
  • 3Institute of Coastal Systems, Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany

Abstract. We propose that considering mesoscale wind direction changes in the computation of wind farm cluster wakes could reduce the uncertainty of engineering wake modelling tools. The relevance of mesoscale wind direction changes is investigated using a wind climatology of the German Bight area covering 30 years, derived from the New European Wind Atlas (NEWA). Furthermore, we present a new solution for engineering modelling tools that accounts for the effect of such changes on the propagation of cluster wakes. Mesoscale wind direction changes are found to exceed 7° per 100 km in 50 % of all cases and are particularly large in the lower partial load range, which is associated with strong wake formation. Here, the quartiles reach up to 20° per 100 km. Especially on a horizontal scale of several tens to a hundred kilometers, wind direction changes are relevant. Both the temporal and spatial scale at which large wind direction changes occur depend on the presence of pressure systems. Furthermore, atmospheric conditions which promote far-reaching wakes were found to align with a strong turning in 14.6 % of the cases. In order to capture these mesoscale wind direction changes in engineering model tools, a wake propagation model was implemented into the Fraunhofer IWES wind farm and wake modelling software flappy. The propagation model derives streamlines from the horizontal velocity field and forces the single turbine wakes along these streamlines. This model has been qualitatively evaluated by simulating the flow around wind farm clusters in the German Bight with data from the mesoscale atlas of NEWA and comparing the results to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurements for selected situations. The comparison reveals that the flow patterns are in good agreement if the underlying mesoscale data capture the velocity field well. For such cases, the new model provides an improvement compared to the baseline approach of engineering models, which assumes a straight-line propagation of wakes. The streamline and the baseline model have been further compared in terms of their quantitative effect on the energy yield. Simulating two neighbouring wind farm clusters over a time period of 10 years, it is found that there are no significant differences across the models when computing the total energy yield of both clusters. However, extracting the wake effect of one cluster on the other, the two models show a difference of about 1 %. Even greater differences are commonly observed when comparing single situations. Therefore, we claim that the model has the potential to reduce uncertainty in applications such as site assessment and short-term power forecasting.

Anna von Brandis et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wes-2022-21', Anonymous Referee #1, 21 Apr 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Martin Dörenkämper, 05 Jul 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on wes-2022-21', Anonymous Referee #2, 10 May 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Martin Dörenkämper, 05 Jul 2022

Anna von Brandis et al.

Anna von Brandis et al.

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Short summary
We propose that considering large-scale wind direction changes in the computation of wind farm cluster wakes is of high relevance. Consequently, we present a new solution for engineering modelling tools that accounts for the effect of such changes on the propagation of wakes. The new model is evaluated with satellite data in the German Bight area. It has the potential to reduce uncertainty in applications such as site assessment and short-term power forecasting.