16 May 2022
16 May 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal WES.

Evaluation of low-level jets in the Southern Baltic Sea: a comparison between ship-based lidar observational data and numerical models

Hugo Rubio1, Martin Kühn2, and Julia Gottschall1 Hugo Rubio et al.
  • 1Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy Systems (IWES), 27572 Bremerhaven, Germany
  • 2ForWind, Institute of Physics, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Küpkersweg 70, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany

Abstract. Ship-based lidar measurements from the NEWA Ferry Lidar Experiment have been used together with ERA5 and numerical data from the NEWA wind atlas to analyze low-level jets over the Southern Baltic Sea with the following main objectives: (1) to evaluate the performance of ship-mounted lidar observations to investigate low-level jet properties along the region covered by the ship track and (2) to compare these observations with numerical simulations to better understand their capacities and limitations in retrieving the characteristics of this mesoscale phenomenon. Most in situ measurement devices can only retrieve wind characteristics in a fixed location. However, the findings of this study show that the non-stationary nature of ship-based lidar systems allows them to capture the variability of the jets' characteristics due to both temporal and spatial effects. The models struggle with accurately capturing the jet features, although they can properly identify their trend in the different locations along the ship track. The found results are strongly influenced by the characteristics of the observations, such as the data availability or the profile height limitation, as well as by the features of the jets, with a particular relevance of core height and fall-off. Additionally, the results illustrate the temporal and spatial shift between the jets detected by the measurements and the models and the potential benefit of considering such deviations when studying low-level jets' climatology through numerical modes.

Hugo Rubio et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wes-2022-40', Stefan Emeis, 31 May 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on wes-2022-40', Anonymous Referee #2, 09 Jun 2022
  • AC1: 'Authors response on wes-2022-40', Hugo Rubio, 25 Jul 2022

Hugo Rubio et al.

Hugo Rubio et al.


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Short summary
The proper development of offshore wind farms requires the accurate description of atmospheric phenomena like low-level jets. In this study, we evaluate the capabilities and limitations of ship-mounted lidar devices and numerical models to characterize the temporal and spatial variation of the jets' properties over the Southern Baltic Sea.