Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-2023-104
https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-2023-104
09 Oct 2023
 | 09 Oct 2023
Status: a revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal WES and is expected to appear here in due course.

Machine Learning-Based Estimate of The Wind Speed Over Complex Terrain Using the LSTM Recurrent Neural Network

Cassia Maria Leme Beu and Eduardo Landulfo

Abstract. Accurate estimate of the wind speed profile is crucial for a range of activities such as wind energy and aviation. The power law and the logarithmic-based profiles have been widely used as universal formulas to extrapolate the wind speed profile. However, these traditional methods have limitations in capturing the complexity of the wind flow, mainly over complex terrain. In recent years, the machine learning techniques have emerged as a promising tool for estimating the wind speed profiles. In this study, we used the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Network and observational lidar datasets from three different sites over complex terrain to estimate the wind profile until 230 m. Our results showed that the LSTM outperformed the Power Law as the distance from the surface increased. The coefficient of determination (R2) was greater than 90 % until 100 m when the input dataset included only variables of 40 m height. However, the performance of the model improved when the 60 m wind speed was added to the input dataset. Furthermore, we found that the LSTM model trained on one site with 40 and 60 m observational data and applied to others sites also outperformed the Power Law. Our results show that the machine learning techniques, particularly LSTM, is a promising tool for accurately estimating the wind speed profiles over complex terrain, even for short observational campaigns.

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Cassia Maria Leme Beu and Eduardo Landulfo

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wes-2023-104', Anonymous Referee #1, 07 Dec 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Cassia Beu, 16 Jan 2024
  • RC2: 'Comment on wes-2023-104', Anonymous Referee #2, 08 Dec 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Cassia Beu, 16 Jan 2024

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wes-2023-104', Anonymous Referee #1, 07 Dec 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Cassia Beu, 16 Jan 2024
  • RC2: 'Comment on wes-2023-104', Anonymous Referee #2, 08 Dec 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Cassia Beu, 16 Jan 2024
Cassia Maria Leme Beu and Eduardo Landulfo
Cassia Maria Leme Beu and Eduardo Landulfo

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Short summary
Extrapolating the wind profile for complex terrain through the Long Short-Term Memory outperformed the traditional Power Law methodology, which due to its universal nature cannot capture local features, as the machine learning methodology does. Moreover, considering the importance of investigating the wind potential and the needs for alternative energy sources, it is motivating to find out that a short observational campaign can produce better results than the traditional techniques.
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