24 Oct 2023
 | 24 Oct 2023
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal WES.

Simulating low-frequency wind fluctuations

Abdul Haseeb Syed and Jakob Mann

Abstract. Large-scale flow structures are vital in influencing the dynamic response of floating wind turbines and wake meandering behind large offshore wind turbines. It is imperative that we develop an inflow wind turbulence model capable of replicating the large-scale and low-frequency wind fluctuations occurring in the marine atmosphere since the current turbulence models do not account well for this phenomenon. Here, we present a method to simulate low-frequency wind fluctuations. This method employs the two-dimensional spectral tensor for low-frequency, anisotropic wind fluctuations presented by Syed and Mann (2023) to generate stochastic wind fields. The simulation method generates large-scale 2D wind fields for the longitudinal u and lateral v  wind components. The low-frequency wind turbulence is assumed to be independent of the high-frequency turbulence thus a broad spectral representation can be obtained just by superposing the two turbulent wind fields. The method is tested by comparing the simulated and theoretical spectra and co-coherences of the combined low- and high-frequency fluctuations. Furthermore, the low-frequency wind fluctuations can also be subjected to anisotropy. The resulting wind fields from this method can be used to analyze the impact of low-frequency wind fluctuations on wind turbine loads and dynamic response and for studying the wake meandering behind large offshore wind farms.

Abdul Haseeb Syed and Jakob Mann

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wes-2023-142', Anonymous Referee #1, 03 Feb 2024
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC1', Abdul Haseeb Syed, 15 Apr 2024
  • RC2: 'Comment on wes-2023-142', Anonymous Referee #2, 18 Mar 2024
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC2', Abdul Haseeb Syed, 15 Apr 2024
Abdul Haseeb Syed and Jakob Mann
Abdul Haseeb Syed and Jakob Mann


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Short summary
Wind flow consists of swirling patterns of air called eddies, some as big as many kilometers across, while others are as small as just a few meters. This paper introduces a method to simulate these large swirling patterns on a flat grid. Using these simulations we can better figure out how these large eddies affect big wind turbines in terms of loads and forces.