09 Oct 2023
 | 09 Oct 2023
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal WES.

Control-Oriented Modelling of Wind Direction Variability

Scott Dallas, Adam Stock, and Edward Hart

Abstract. Wind direction variability significantly affects the performance and life-time of wind turbines and wind farms. Accurately modelling wind direction variability and understanding the effects of yaw misalignment are critical towards designing better wind turbine yaw and wind farm flow controllers. This review focuses on control-oriented modelling of wind direction variability, which is an approach that aims to capture the dynamics of wind direction variability for improving controller performance over a complete set of farm flow scenarios, performing iterative controller development, and/or achieving real-time closed-loop model-based feedback control. The review covers various modelling techniques, including large eddy simulations (LES), data-driven empirical models, and machine learning models, as well as different approaches to data collection and pre-processing. The review also discusses the different challenges in modelling wind direction variability, such as data quality and availability, model uncertainty, and the trade-off between accuracy and computational cost. The review concludes with a discussion of the critical challenges which need to be overcome in control-oriented modelling of wind direction variability, including the use of both high and low-fidelity models.

Scott Dallas et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wes-2023-93', Anonymous Referee #1, 20 Oct 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on wes-2023-93', Andreas Rott, 17 Nov 2023
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC2', Scott Dallas, 22 Nov 2023

Scott Dallas et al.

Scott Dallas et al.


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Short summary
This review presents the current understanding of wind direction variability in the context of control-oriented modelling of wind turbines and wind farms in a manner suitable to a wide audience. Motivation comes from the significant and commonly seen yaw error of horizontal axis wind turbines, which carries substantial negative impacts on annual energy production and the levelised cost of wind energy. Gaps in the literature are identified and the critical challenges in this area are discussed.