02 Apr 2024
 | 02 Apr 2024
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal WES.

Characterization of Dynamic Stall on Large Wind Turbines

Hye Rim Kim, Jasson A. Printezis, Jan Dominik Ahrens, Joerg R. Seume, and Lars Wein

Abstract. This study shows an extensive analysis of dynamic stall on wind turbine airfoils preparing the development of a reduced-order model applicable to thick airfoils (t / c > 0.21) in the future. Utilizing URANS simulations of a pitching FFA-W3-211 airfoil at the Reynolds number of 15 million, our analysis identifies the distinct phases in the course of the evolution of dynamic stall. When the dynamic stall is conventionally categorized into the primary instability transitioning to the vortex formation stage, we suggest two sub-categories in the first phase, and an intermediate stage featuring a plateau in lift prior to entering the full stall region. This delays the inception of deep stall, approximately 3° for a simulation case. This is not predictable with existing dynamic stall models, optimized for low Reynolds number applications. These features are attributed to the enhanced flow attachment near the leading-edge, restricting the stall region downstream of the position of maximum thickness. The analysis on the frequency spectra of unsteady pressure confirms the distinct characteristics of the leading-edge vortex street and its interaction with large-scale mid-chord vortices to form the dynamic stall vortices (DSVs). Examination of the leading-edge suction parameter (LESP) proposed by Ramesh et al. (2014) for thin airfoils under low Reynolds numbers reveals that LESP is a valid criterion in predicting the onset of the static stall for thick airfoils under high Reynolds numbers. Based on the localized separation behavior during a dynamic stall cycle, we suggest a mid-chord suction parameter (MCSP) and trailing-edge suction parameter (TESP) as supplementary criteria for the identification of each stage. The MCSP exhibits a breakdown in magnitude at the onset of the dynamic stall formation stage and full stall, while TESP supports indicating the emergence of a deep stall by detecting the trailing-edge vortex.

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Hye Rim Kim, Jasson A. Printezis, Jan Dominik Ahrens, Joerg R. Seume, and Lars Wein

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wes-2024-31', Anonymous Referee #1, 01 May 2024
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Hye Rim Kim, 08 May 2024
  • RC2: 'Comment on wes-2024-31', Anonymous Referee #2, 04 Jun 2024
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Hye Rim Kim, 06 Jun 2024
Hye Rim Kim, Jasson A. Printezis, Jan Dominik Ahrens, Joerg R. Seume, and Lars Wein
Hye Rim Kim, Jasson A. Printezis, Jan Dominik Ahrens, Joerg R. Seume, and Lars Wein


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Short summary
The need of renewable energy, so thus more efficient wind turbines, is ever increasing. Accurate prediction of the performance in the design stage is a necessary. Especially, predicting the dynamic performance of wind turbine in the region where it undergoes highly unsteady flow, is very challenging. We investigated this dynamic performance of an airfoil, which is typical for the mega-structure wind farms, to support the development of more efficient design tools in the future.