29 Mar 2022
29 Mar 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal WES.

FarmConners Market Showcases Results: Wind farm flow control considering electricity prices and revenue

Konstanze Kölle1, Tuhfe Göçmen2, Irene Eguinoa3, Leonardo Andrés Alcayaga Román2, Maria Aparicio-Sanchez3, Ju Feng2, Johan Meyers4, Vasilis Pettas5, and Ishaan Sood4 Konstanze Kölle et al.
  • 1SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway
  • 2DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde/Lyngby, Denmark
  • 3Wind Energy Department, Centro Nacional de Energías Renovables (CENER), Sarriguren, Spain
  • 4Mechanical Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
  • 5Stuttgart Wind Energy, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany

Abstract. The EU and UK have made ambitious commitments to decarbonise their economies by 2050 under the Net Zero plans. For this, offshore wind will play a major role, significantly contributing to a paradigm shift in the power generation and greater volatility of electricity prices. The operating strategy of wind farms should therefore move from a power maximisation to revenue maximisation design. Wind farm flow control (WFFC) is a key enabler for this shift through mitigation of wake effects in the design and operation phases. The results of the FarmConners market showcases presented here are the first attempt to economically assess WFFC strategies with respect to electricity market prices and revenue.

Here, we present a conceptual simulation study starting from individual turbine control, and extend it to layouts with 10 and 32 turbines operated with WFFC based on the results of five participants. Each participant belonged to a different research group with their respective simulation environments, flow models and WFFC strategies. Via a comparative analysis of relative WFFC benefits estimated per participant, the implications of wind farm size, the applied control strategy and the overall model fidelity are discussed in zero-subsidy scenarios. For all the participants, it is seen that the income gain can differ significantly from the power gain depending on the electricity price under the same inflow, and a favourable control strategy for dominant wind directions can pay off. However, a strong correlation between income and power gain is also observed for the analysed high electricity prices scenarios underlining the need for additional modelling capabilities to carry out a more comprehensive revenue/value optimisation including lower prices and system requirements driven cases.

Konstanze Kölle et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wes-2022-25', Anonymous Referee #1, 29 Apr 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on wes-2022-25', Anonymous Referee #2, 12 Jun 2022

Konstanze Kölle et al.

Data sets

FarmConners Market Showcases Repository Tuhfe Göçmen; Konstanze Kölle; Irene Eguinoa

Konstanze Kölle et al.


Total article views: 336 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
229 93 14 336 6 3
  • HTML: 229
  • PDF: 93
  • XML: 14
  • Total: 336
  • BibTeX: 6
  • EndNote: 3
Views and downloads (calculated since 29 Mar 2022)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 29 Mar 2022)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 296 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 296 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
Latest update: 03 Jul 2022
Short summary
The paper analyses the operation of wind farms using a control system that considers the aerodynamic dynamics between the wind turbines. More specifically, this paper focuses on the operation with variable electricity prices where the operation is adjusted depending on the present market situation. Computer simulations indicate that considering the electricity price in the operational strategy can be beneficial with respect to the gained income compared to focusing on the power gain.