Editor(s): Julie Lundquist, Katherine Dykes, Ralf Schelenz, Nicolaos Cutululis, Oriol Gomis-Bellmunt, Hannele Holttinen, Julio J. Melero, Michael Muskulus, Cian Desmond, Bonnie Ram, Zhen Gao, and Jakob MannMore information
This special issue encourages all presenters at the Wind Energy Science Conference 2019 held in Cork, Ireland, 17–20 June 2019, to submit a paper based on their presentation. All papers will be reviewed as ordinary papers and following the same criteria.
Making wind turbines more reliable over their lifetime is an important goal for improving wind turbine technology. The wind turbine drivetrain has a major influence on turbine reliability. This paper presents an approach that will help to identify holistically better drivetrain concepts in an early product design phase from an operational perspective as it is able to estimate and assess drivetrain-concept-specific inherent risks in the operational phase.
Wind farm sites in complex terrain are subject to local wind phenomena, which are difficult to quantify but have a huge impact on a wind turbine's annual energy production. Therefore, a wind sensor was applied on an unmanned aerial vehicle and validated against stationary wind sensors with good agreement. A measurement over complex terrain showed local deviations from the mean wind speed of approx. ± 30 %, indicating the importance of an extensive site evaluation to reduce investment risk.
Monitoring the flow features over wind turbine blades is a challenging task that has become more and more crucial to monitor and/or operate wind turbine blades. This paper demonstrates the ability of an innovative sensor to detect these features over wind turbine blades. The spatiotemporal description of the flow over the surface has been measured over an oscillating blade section and the strip displacement was compared, showing the ability of the sensor to detect stall.
Roller bearing failures in wind turbines' gearboxes lead to long downtimes and high repair costs. This paper should form a basis for the implementation of a predictive maintenance system. Therefore an acoustic-emission-based condition monitoring system is applied to roller bearing test rigs. The system has shown that a damaged surface can be detected at least ~ 4 % (8 h, regarding the time to failure) and possibly up to ~ 50 % (130 h) earlier than by using the vibration-based system.
The article describes results of experimental wind tunnel and CFD testing of four different straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine model configurations. The experiment tested a novel concept of vertically dividing and azimuthally shifting a turbine rotor into two parts with a specific uneven height division in order to limit cycle amplitudes and average cycle values of bending moments at the bottom of the turbine shaft to increase product lifetime, especially for industrial-scale turbines.
The paper proposes a quantitative, non-probabilistic metric for the preliminary comparison of safety of windfarm service operation vessels (SOV) in typical phases of operation. The metric is used as a conditional proxy for the incident likelihood, conditioned upon the presence of similar resources (manpower, time, skills, knowledge, information, etc.) for risk management across compared operational phases.
Revenues from the operation of wind turbines in Germany will be insecure in the future due to the expiration of federal support. Alternative ways of selling electricity are usually based on exchange prices. Therefore, the long-term revenue potential of wind turbines is assessed based on levelized revenue of energy (LROE), using a new forecasting model and open-source data. Results show how different expansion scenarios and emission prices may affect profitability of future plants.
This project is a comparative study that takes into consideration various airfoils from the Selig, NACA, and Eppler families and models them as diffusers of the wind turbine. The efficiency of the diffuser-augmented wind turbine can be enhanced by optimizing the geometry of the diffuser shape. Their subsequent performance trends were then analyzed, and the lower-performing airfoils were systematically eliminated to leave us with an optimum design.
With the increase in installed wind capacity, the rotor diameter of wind turbines is becoming larger and larger, and therefore it is necessary to take aeroelasticity into consideration. At the same time, wind turbines are in reality subjected to atmospheric inflow leading to high wind instabilities and fluctuations. Within this work, a high-fidelity chain is used to analyze the effects of both by the use of models of the same turbine with increasing complexity and technical details.
This work describes a series of tests of active flaps on a 4 MW wind turbine. The measurements were performed between October 2017 and June 2019 using two different active flap configurations on a blade of the turbine, showing a potential to manipulate the loading of the turbine between 5 % and 10 %. This project is performed with the aim of demonstrating a technology with the potential of reducing the levelized cost of energy for wind power.
In this paper, a method to determine the angle of attack on a wind turbine rotor blade using a chordwise pressure distribution measurement was applied. The approach used a reduced number of pressure tap data located close to the blade leading edge. The results were compared with the measurements from three external probes mounted on the blade at different radial positions and with analytical calculations.
Blade bearings of wind turbines experience unusual loads compared to bearings in other industrial applications, which adds some difficulty to the application of otherwise well-established calculation methods, like fatigue lifetime. As a result, different methods for such calculations can be found in the literature. This paper compares three approaches of varying complexity and comes to the conclusion that the simplest of the methods is very inaccurate compared to the more complex methods.
The aerodynamic impact of Gurney flaps is investigated on the rotor blades of the Berlin Research Turbine. The findings of this research project contribute to performance improvements of different-size rotor blades. Gurney flaps are considered a worthwhile passive flow-control device in order to alleviate the adverse effects of both early separation in the inner blade region and leading-edge erosion throughout large parts of the blade span.
Leading edge erosion is an ever-existing damage issue on wind turbine blades. This paper presents the numerical finite element analysis model for incorporating a new leading edge protection component for offshore applications, which is manufactured from thermoplastic polyurethane, into wind turbine blade designs. The model has been validated against experimental trials at demonstrator level, comparing the deflection and strains during testing, and then applied to a full-scale wind turbine blade.
In this paper, the influence of optimal wind farm control and optimal wind farm layout is investigated in terms of power production. The capabilities of the developed optimization platform is demonstrated on the Swedish offshore wind farm, Lillgrund. It shows that the expected annual energy production can be increased by 4 % by integrating the wind farm control into the design of the wind farm layout, which is 1.2 % higher than what is achieved by optimizing the layout only.
Storms, typhoons or seismic actions are likely to cause permanent rotation of offshore wind turbine foundations. Excessive rotation jeopardizes the operation of the wind turbine. In this study geotechnical, loads and probabilistic modelling are used to develop a reliability framework for predicting the rotation of the foundation under cyclic lateral loading.
A large-eddy simulation using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) Palabos framework was implemented to calculate the wind field over the complex terrain of Bolund Hill. The results were compared to Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes and detached-eddy simulation (DES) using Ansys Fluent and field measurements. A comparison of the three methods' computational costs has shown that the LBM, even though not yet fully optimised, can perform 5 times faster than DES and lead to reasonably accurate results.
The ProPlanEn team developed WakeBlaster, a new very fast numerical model for simulating the power output of wind farms. Accurate modelling of the waked flow enables the reduction of wind farm losses. By modelling the whole wind farm, WakeBlaster replaces simpler models which superimpose symmetrical solutions of the flow behind individual wind turbines. The paper describes the fundamental equations, discusses the scalability of the solution, and demonstrates the 3D flow on an offshore wind farm.
The application of an optical measurement method for the determination of rotor blade deformation and torsion based on digital image correlation (DIC) is presented. Measurement results are validated by comparison with comparative measurement data. Finally, aeroelastic simulation results are compared to DIC results. It is shown that the measured deformation is in very good agreement with the simulations, and therefore DIC has great potential for the experimental validation of aeroelastic codes.
One of the major challenges when working with wind turbine sensor data in practice is the presence of systematic changes in signal behaviour induced by malfunctions or maintenance actions. We found that approximately every third signal is affected by such change points and introduce an algorithm which reliably detects them in a highly automated fashion. The algorithm enables the application of data-driven techniques to monitor wind turbine components using data from commonly installed sensors.
Wind turbine blade prototypes undergo structural tests before they are used in the field so that any design failure can be detected prior to their operation. In this study, strength characteristics of a small-scale existing 5 m composite wind turbine blade is carried out utilizing the finite-element-method software package Ansys. The results show that the blade exhibits sufficient resistance against buckling. Yet, laminate failure is found to play a major role in the ultimate blade failure.
This paper provides an understanding of grid-forming control of wind turbines that can enable their black-start and islanding functionalities. Four control strategies have been tested with the aim to compare their capability to deal with the energization transients of an HVDC-connected offshore wind power plant, while maintaining stable offshore voltage and frequency. This is a step forward in overcoming wind turbine control challenges to provide black-start/restoration ancillary services.
Multi-rotor wind turbines are an innovative solution to achieving cost-effective large-scale wind turbines. They utilize a large number of small rotors connected to one support structure instead of one large rotor. Benefits include reduction in cost, transport and installation simplicity, modular design, and standardization. This work compares different electrical systems in terms of cost, mass and efficiency and finds a star-type system (each rotor has its own cable) to be the most suitable.
We propose a method for carrying out wind turbine load validation in wake conditions using measurements from forward-looking nacelle lidars. The uncertainty of aeroelastic load predictions is quantified against wind turbine on-board sensor data. This work demonstrates the applicability of nacelle-mounted lidar measurements to extend load and power validations under wake conditions and highlights the main challenges.
We have presented a methodology for including multiple wind profile shapes in a wind resource description that are identified using a data-driven approach. These shapes go beyond the height range for which conventional wind profile relationships are developed. Moreover, they include non-monotonic shapes such as low-level jets. We demonstrated this methodology for an on- and offshore reference location using DOWA data and efficiently estimated the annual energy production of a pumping AWE system.
Multi-rotor wind turbine systems show the potential to reduce the levelized cost of energy. In this study a simplified and fast method as a first venture to find an optimal number of rotors and design parameters is presented. A variety of space frame designs are dimensioned based on ultimate loads and buckling, as a preliminary step for later detailed analyses.
This paper introduces the Tocha wind farm, presents the different layouts adopted in the instrumentation of the wind turbines and shows initial results. At this preliminary stage, the capabilities of the very extensive monitoring layout are demonstrated. The results presented demonstrate the ability of the different monitoring components to track the modal parameters of the system, composed of tower and rotor, and to characterize the internal loads at the tower base and blade roots.
Flatback airfoils are used in the root region of wind turbine blades since they have several structural and aerodynamic benefits. Several flow control devices are incorporated to mitigate the effects of vortex shedding in the wake of such airfoils. In this work, two different numerical approaches are compared to wind tunnel measurements to assess the suitability of each method for predicting the performance of the flow control devices in terms of loads and unsteady characteristics.
A huge number of wind turbines have reached their designated lifetime of 20 years.
Most of the turbines installed were overdesigned.
In practice, these turbines could potentially operate longer to increase the energy yield.
For the use case turbine considered in this work, a simple lifetime extension of 8.7 years increases the energy yield by 43.5 %. When the swept rotor area is increased by means of a blade tip extension, the yield is increased by an additional 2.3 %.
The article describes a hybrid modeling approach to optimize the energy capture of wind farms. Hybrid modeling combines mechanistic and
data-driven models. The data-driven part is used to correct inaccuracies of the mechanistic model. The hybrid approach allows for adjustment of the mechanistic model beyond simple parameter estimation. It is, therefore, an attractive approach in wind farm control. The approach is illustrated in several numerical case studies.
This study presents a marriage of unsteady aerodynamics and machine learning. When airfoils are subjected to high inflow angles, the flow no longer follows the surface and the flow is said to be separated. In this flow regime, the forces experienced by the airfoil are highly unsteady. This study uses a range of machine learning techniques to extract infomation from test data to help us understand the flow regime and makes recomendations on how to model it.
Wind turbine rotors are usually designed to maximize power performance, accepting any loading results. However, from the most basic wind turbine theory, actuator disc theory, two other optimization paths are demonstrated, which may lead to more cost-effective technology – the low-induction rotor where an expanded rotor diameter and some extra power is achieved without increasing the blade root bending moment and the secondary rotor which can provide a very low torque and low-cost drivetrain.
Vortex-induced vibrations are structural vibrations that can occur due to the shedding of flow vortices when a fluid flow passes around a structure. Here, conditions specific to wind turbine towers are investigated numerically. The work highlights a complex interplay between structural and fluid dynamics. In particular, certain conditions lead to a continuous alternation between self-exciting and self-limiting vortex-induced vibrations, linked to a change in the sign of the aerodynamic damping.
This study presents a measurement campaign, which consists of two nacelle-mounted lidar systems in a densely packed onshore wind farm. The aim of the campaign is to validate and improve wake models for load and power estimations in wind farms. Based on the findings from the measurements, the formulation of the wake degradation in the dynamic wake meandering model has been adjusted, so that the recalibrated model coincides very well with the measurements and thereby reduces the uncertainties.
Motivated by the need for wind turbine rotor blade tests in flows with atmospheric-like properties like gusts, we present a new setup to generate strong, rapid, turbulent gusts in a wind tunnel. The setup consists of a rotating bar that cuts through the inlet of the wind tunnel which generates the gust, and it is called the chopper. In this work, the flow generated by the chopper is characterized, and we show how the gust and its turbulence evolve downstream.
Aeroelastic design load calculations play a key role in determining the design loads of the different wind turbine components. This study compares load estimations from calculations using a Blade Element Momentum aerodynamic model with estimations from calculations using a higher-order Lifting-Line Free Vortex Wake aerodynamic model. The paper finds and explains the differences in fatigue and extreme turbine loads for power production simulations that cover a wide range of turbulent wind speeds.
The present publication has contributed towards making vortex wake models ready for application to certification load calculations. The reduction in flapwise blade root moment fatigue loading using vortex wake models instead of the blade element momentum method has been verified using dedicated CFD simulations. A validation effort against a long-term field measurement campaign featuring 2.5 MW turbines has confirmed the improved prediction of unsteady load characteristics by vortex wake models.
This work addresses the mechanical modelling of complex beamlike structures, which may be curved, twisted and tapered in their reference state and undergo large displacements, 3D cross-sectional warping and small strains. A model suitable for the problem at hand is proposed. It can be used to analyze large deflections under prescribed loads and determine the stress and strain fields in the structure. Analytical and numerical results obtained by applying the proposed modelling approach are shown.
When a new rotor blade is designed, a prototype needs to be qualified by testing in two separate directions before it can be used in the field. These tests are time-consuming and expensive. Combining these two tests into one by applying loads in two directions simultaneously is a possible method to reduce time and costs. This paper presents a new computational method, which is capable of designing these complex tests and shows exemplarily that the combined test is faster than traditional tests.
This paper outlines a novel segment test methodology for wind turbine rotor blades. It mainly aims at improving the efficiency of the fatigue test as a future test method at Fraunhofer IWES. The numerical simulation reveals that this method has a significant time savings of up to 43 % and 52 % for 60 and 90 m blades, while improving test quality within an acceptable range of overload. This test methodology could be a technical solution for future offshore rotor blades longer than 100 m.
In offshore wind, it is important to have an accurate wind resource assessment. Measure–correlate–predict (MCP) is a statistical method used in the assessment of the wind resource at a candidate site. Being a statistical method, it is subject to uncertainty, resulting in an uncertainty in the power output from the wind farm. This study involves the use of wind data from the island of Malta and uses a hypothetical wind farm to establish the best MCP methodology for the wind resource assessment.
The presented work investigates the potential of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for numerical simulations of wind turbine wakes. The LBM is a rather novel, alternative approach for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) that allows for significantly faster simulations. The study shows that the method provides similar results when compared to classical CFD approaches while only requiring a fraction of the computational demand.
It is crucial to model dynamic stall accurately to reduce inaccuracies in predicting fatigue and extreme loads. This paper investigates a new dynamic stall model. Improvements are proposed based on experiments. The updated model shows significant improvements over the initial model; however, further validation and research are still required. This updated model might be incorporated into future wind turbine design codes and will hopefully reduce inaccuracies in predicted wind turbine loads.
This research paper proposes a generic structure of electrical test benches and a novel categorization of test options for experimental analysis of wind turbines and wind power plants. The new proposed test structure would concern the increasing challenges in wind power integration and control including reliability, stability, harmonic interactions, and control performance of WPPs in connection to different types of AC and HVDC transmission systems.
Wind speeds can be measured remotely from the ground with lidars. Their estimates are accurate for mean speeds, but turbulence leads to measurement errors. We predict these errors using computer-generated data and compare lidar measurements with data from a meteorological mast. The comparison shows that deviations depend on wind direction, measurement height, and wind conditions. Our method to reduce the measurement error is successful when the wind is aligned with one of the lidar beams.
This work has analyzed historical data of 10 min averaged wind speed measurements to investigate the accuracy of the commonly used equations for describing the wind velocity as a function of the height above ground. The results of analyzing data from a wide range of sites show that the common equations do not sufficiently describe certain physical phenomena, especially at offshore and coastal locations. The results imply that there is a need for more advanced models.
Simulations of wind farms allow the estimation of the forces acting on the turbines and thus their lifetime and power production. Representing the actual geometric shape of turbines in a realistic atmospheric flow is computationally expensive; therefore they are modelled in a simplified manner. Unfortunately, these simplifications negatively impact the estimated forces. We developed an open-source aerodynamic model that corrects the forces, giving more accurate estimates of lifetime and power.
Wind turbine blade leading edge erosion (LEE) is potentially a significant source of energy loss and expense for wind farm operators. This study presents a novel approach to characterizing LEE potential from precipitation across the contiguous USA based on publicly available National Weather Service dual-polarization RADAR data. The approach is described in detail and illustrated using six locations distributed across parts of the USA that have substantial wind turbine deployments.
The interaction between wind turbines in a wind farm through their wakes is a widely studied research area. Until recently, research was focused on finding constant turbine inputs that optimize the performance of the wind farm. However, recent studies have shown that time-varying, dynamic inputs might be more beneficial. In this paper, the validity of this approach is further investigated by implementing it in scaled wind tunnel experiments and assessing load effects, showing promising results.
Revised manuscript accepted for WES(discussion: closed, 3 comments)
In this article the aero-elastic loads on a 10 MW turbine in response to unconventional wind conditions selected from a year long Large Eddy Simulation on a site at the North Sea are evaluated. Thereto an assessment is made of the practical importance of these wind conditions within an aero-elastic context based on high fidelity wind modelling. Moreover the accuracy of BEM based methods for modelling such wind conditions is assessed.
Preprint under review for WES(discussion: final response, 3 comments)
It is well known that the classical BEM model fails to accurately predict the loadings and velocities on a wind turbines blade. In this work, an improved BEM model for low solidity wind turbines is proposed by accounting for 3D stall delay and far wake expansion effects. Additionally, the improved BEM equations are solved without the drag force. The results show that the improved BEM model predicts accurately the loading and velocities on the NREL phase VI rotor compared to the classical BEM.
Preprint under review for WES(discussion: final response, 4 comments)
Ducted Wind Turbines (DWTs) can be used for energy harvesting in urban areas where non-uniform flows are caused by the presence of buildings or other surface discontinuities. For this reason, the aerodynamic performance of DWTs in yawed flow conditions must be characterized. It is found that the duct cross-section camber not only offers insensitivity to yaw, but also a gain in performance up to a specific yaw angle; thereafter any further increase of yaw results in a performance drop.