Journal cover Journal topic
Wind Energy Science The interactive open-access journal of the European Academy of Wind Energy
Journal topic

Journal metrics

Journal metrics

  • CiteScore value: 0.6 CiteScore
  • h5-index value: 13 h5-index 13
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  18 Mar 2020

18 Mar 2020

Review status
A revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal WES.

Comparison of HiL Control Methods for Wind Turbine System Test Benches

Lennard Kaven1,2, Christian Leisten1,2, Maximilian Basler1,2, Moritz Schlösser1, Uwe Jassmann1,2, and Dirk Abel1,2 Lennard Kaven et al.
  • 1Institute of Automatic Control, RWTH Aachen University, Campus-Boulevard 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany
  • 2Center for Wind Power Drives, RWTH Aachen University, Campus-Boulevard 61, 52074 Aachen, Germany

Abstract. The current test process in design and certification of wind turbines (WTs) is time and cost intensive, as it depends on the wind conditions and requires the setup of the WT in the field. Efforts are made to transfer the test process to a system test bench (STB) whereby an easier installation is enabled and the load can be arbitrarily applied. However, on a STB the WT is installed without rotor and tower and the remaining drive train behaviour acts differently to the WT drive train in the field. The original behaviour must be restored by incorporating a Hardware-in.the-Loop (HiL) simulation into the operation of the STB. The HiL simulation consists of the virtual rotor and wind and the control of the applied loads. Furthermore, sensors as the wind vane and actors as the pitch drives, which are not present at the STB, are substituted by simulation models.

This contribution investigates suitable HiL control methods of the applied torque. Herein, we survey three methods of different complexity and compare them in terms of performance, actuator requirements and robustness. The simplest method emulates the divergent inertia by classical control. A more complex method based on a reference model also considers the alternated dynamic behaviour of the drive train. Model predictive control (MPC) currently constitutes the most complex HiL method, as the MPC also includes future predictions of the driving torque behaviour. Our comparison identifies that increased complexity of the control method ensures enhanced preformance. WT drive train dynamics can be reproduced up to 1, 6, and 10 Hz for IE, MRC and MPC, respectively. Yet, for higher control complexity, the requirements for the dynamic torque proliferate and the controllers robustness to model deviations decreases.

Lennard Kaven et al.

Interactive discussion

Status: final response (author comments only)
Status: final response (author comments only)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment

Lennard Kaven et al.

Lennard Kaven et al.


Total article views: 411 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
255 113 43 411 41 37
  • HTML: 255
  • PDF: 113
  • XML: 43
  • Total: 411
  • BibTeX: 41
  • EndNote: 37
Views and downloads (calculated since 18 Mar 2020)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 18 Mar 2020)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 257 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 257 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1



No saved metrics found.


No discussed metrics found.
Latest update: 08 Aug 2020
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
HiL control methods are required for the design and certification process of wind turbines on system test benches under realistic conditions. By investigating three HiL control methods for the same test bench setup, we outline the results achievable with a basic method. Additionally, we point out why the usage of more complex methods is reasonable to increase the capabilities of HiL operation on system test benches.
HiL control methods are required for the design and certification process of wind turbines on...