Articles | Volume 6, issue 2
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 311–365, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-6-311-2021
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 311–365, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-6-311-2021
Review article
05 Mar 2021
Review article | 05 Mar 2021

An overview of wind-energy-production prediction bias, losses, and uncertainties

Joseph C. Y. Lee and M. Jason Fields

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Latest update: 01 Jul 2022
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Short summary
This review paper evaluates the energy prediction bias in the wind resource assessment process, and the overprediction bias is decreasing over time. We examine the estimated and observed losses and uncertainties in energy production from the literature, according to the proposed framework in the International Electrotechnical Commission 61400-15 standard. The considerable uncertainties call for further improvements in the prediction methodologies and more observations for validation.