This review paper evaluates the energy prediction bias in the wind resource assessment process, and the overprediction bias is decreasing over time. We examine the estimated and observed losses and uncertainties in energy production from the literature, according to the proposed framework in the International Electrotechnical Commission 61400-15 standard. The considerable uncertainties call for further improvements in the prediction methodologies and more observations for validation.
Roller bearing failures in wind turbines' gearboxes lead to long downtimes and high repair costs. This paper should form a basis for the implementation of a predictive maintenance system. Therefore an acoustic-emission-based condition monitoring system is applied to roller bearing test rigs. The system has shown that a damaged surface can be detected at least ~ 4 % (8 h, regarding the time to failure) and possibly up to ~ 50 % (130 h) earlier than by using the vibration-based system.
In this study wake redirection and axial-induction control are combined to mitigate turbine–wake interactions, which have a negative impact on the performance and lifetime of wind farms. The results confirm that substantial power gains are obtained when overinduction is combined with tilt control. More importantly, the approach is extended to the case of yaw control, showing that large power gain enhancements are obtained by means of static overinductive yaw control.
This paper describes the design and field testing of a controller for reducing wake interactions on a wind farm. Reducing the power of some turbines weakens their wakes, allowing other turbines to produce more power so that the total wind farm power may increase. There have been doubts that this is feasible, but these field tests on a full-scale wind farm indicate that this goal has been achieved, also providing convincing validation of the model used for designing the controller.
Monitoring the flow features over wind turbine blades is a challenging task that has become more and more crucial to monitor and/or operate wind turbine blades. This paper demonstrates the ability of an innovative sensor to detect these features over wind turbine blades. The spatiotemporal description of the flow over the surface has been measured over an oscillating blade section and the strip displacement was compared, showing the ability of the sensor to detect stall.
Wind farm sites in complex terrain are subject to local wind phenomena, which are difficult to quantify but have a huge impact on a wind turbine's annual energy production. Therefore, a wind sensor was applied on an unmanned aerial vehicle and validated against stationary wind sensors with good agreement. A measurement over complex terrain showed local deviations from the mean wind speed of approx. ± 30 %, indicating the importance of an extensive site evaluation to reduce investment risk.
This analysis validates the DWM model based on loads and power production measured at an onshore wind farm. Special focus is given to the performance of a version of the DWM model that was previously recalibrated with a lidar system at the site. The results of the recalibrated wake model agree very well with the measurements. Furthermore, lidar measurements of the wind speed deficit and the wake meandering are incorporated in the DWM model definition in order to decrease the uncertainties.
Detailed wind generation simulations of the 2028 Belgian offshore fleet are performed in order to quantify the distribution and extremes of power fluctuations in several time windows. A model validation with respect to the operational data of the 2018 fleet shows that the methodology presented in this article is able to capture the distribution of wind power and its spatiotemporal characteristics. The results show that the standardized generation ramps are expected to be reduced in the future.
Wind energy systems work coherently in atmospheric flows which are gusty. This causes highly variable power productions and high fatigue loads on the system, which together hold back further growth of the wind energy market. This study demonstrates an alternative experimental procedure to investigate some extreme wind condition effects on wind turbines based on the IEC standard. This experiment can be improved upon and used to develop new control concepts, mitigating the effect of gusts.
A method to design advanced tip extensions for modern wind turbine blades is presented in this work. The resulting design concept has high potential in terms of actual implementation in a real rotor upscaling with a potential business case in reducing the cost of energy produced by future large wind turbine rotors.
A wind farm can reduce the wind speed in front of it just by its presence and thus also slightly impact the available power. In our study we investigate this so-called global-blockage effect, measuring the inflow of a large offshore wind farm with a laser-based remote sensing method up to several kilometres in front of the farm. Our results show global blockage under a certain atmospheric condition and operational state of the wind farm; during other conditions it is not visible in our data.
The assessment of the structural condition and technical lifetime extension of a wind turbine is challenging due to lack of information for the estimation of fatigue loads. This paper demonstrates the modelling of damage-equivalent loads of the fore–aft bending moments of a wind turbine tower, highlighting the advantage of using the neighbourhood component analysis. This feature selection technique is compared to correlation analysis, stepwise regression, and principal component analysis.
In this paper a three-dimensional steady-state solver for flow through a wind farm is developed and validated. The computational cost of the solver is on the order of seconds for large wind farms. The model is validated using high-fidelity simulations and SCADA.
Making wind turbines more reliable over their lifetime is an important goal for improving wind turbine technology. The wind turbine drivetrain has a major influence on turbine reliability. This paper presents an approach that will help to identify holistically better drivetrain concepts in an early product design phase from an operational perspective as it is able to estimate and assess drivetrain-concept-specific inherent risks in the operational phase.
This paper investigates the effect of misaligning a wind turbine on its wake deviation response and on the global load variation of a downstream wind turbine during a positive and negative yaw maneuver, representing a misalignment–realignment scenario. Yaw maneuvers could be used to voluntarily misalign wind turbines when wake steering control is targeted. The aim of this wind farm control strategy is to optimize the overall production of the wind farm and its lifetime.