The paper analyzes in detail the problem of scaling, considering both the steady-state and transient response cases, including the effects of aerodynamics, elasticity, inertia, gravity, and actuation. After a general theoretical analysis of the problem, the article considers two alternative ways of designing a scaled rotor. The two methods are then applied to the scaling of a 10 MW turbine of 180 m in diameter down to three different sizes (54, 27, and 2.8 m).
This study investigates aero-elasticity of wind turbines present in the turbulent and chaotic wind flow of the lower atmosphere, using fluid–structure interaction simulations. This method combines structural response computations with high-fidelity modeling of the turbulent wind flow, using a novel turbulence model which combines the capabilities of large-eddy simulations for atmospheric flows with improved delayed detached eddy simulations for the separated flow near the rotor.
We investigate the ability of a community-open weather model to simulate the turbulent atmosphere by comparison with measurements from a 250 m mast at a flat site in Denmark. We found that within three main atmospheric stability regimes, idealized simulations reproduce closely the characteristics of the observations with regards to the mean wind, direction, turbulent fluxes, and turbulence spectra. Our work provides foundation for the use of the weather model in multiscale real-time simulations.
We deal with wake redirection, which is a promising approach designed to mitigate turbine–wake interactions which have a negative impact on the performance and lifetime of wind farms. We show that substantial power gains can be obtained by tilting the rotors of spanwise-periodic wind-turbine arrays in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Optimal relative rotor sizes and spanwise spacings exist, which maximize the global power extracted from the wind.