Articles | Volume 7, issue 2
Research article
04 Apr 2022
Research article |  | 04 Apr 2022

Artificial hard-substrate colonisation in the offshore Hywind Scotland Pilot Park

Rikard Karlsson, Malin Tivefälth, Iris Duranović, Svante Martinsson, Ane Kjølhamar, and Kari Mette Murvoll

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Cited articles

Bergman, M. J. N., Ubels, S. M., Duineveld, G. C. A., and Meesters, E. W. G.: Effects of a 5-year trawling ban on the local benthic community in a wind farm in the Dutch coastal zone, ICES J. Mar. Sci., 72, 962–972,, 2015. 
Bergmark, P. and Jørgensen, D.: Lophelia pertusa conservation in the North Sea using obsolete offshore structures as artificial reefs, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 516, 275–280,, 2014. 
Bergström, L., Kautsky, L., Malm, T., Rosenberg, R., Wahlberg, M., Capetillo, N. Å., and Wilhelmsson, D.: Effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife – a generalized impact assessment, Environ. Res. Lett., 9, 034012,, 2014. 
Bessel, A.: Kentish Flats offshore wind farm turbine foundation faunal colonisation diving survey, Report no. 08/J/1/03/1034/0839, Tech. rep., Emu Ltd on behalf of Kentish Flats Ltd., 2008. 
BP: Statistical Review of World Energy 2020, (last access: 31 March 2022), 2020. Petroleum, B. BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2020, 2020. Please see link: 
Short summary
Distinct zonations with their own fauna and flora were observed. Algae and blue mussels dominated the structures from the surface down to 20 m, with tube-building fan worms and plumose anemones as the main colonisers found below. The park is in its "intermediate stage" and moving towards the "climax stage", with anemones covering most of the structures. The study was conducted to investigate if a floating wind park has the same fauna and zonations observed on traditional non-floating wind parks.
Final-revised paper