This work summarizes the results of the intelligence-sharing initiative of the Power Curve Working Group. Participants in this share exercise applied a handful of selected power curve modeling correction methods on their power performance test data, and they submitted the results for the coauthors to analyze. In this paper, we describe the share exercise, explain the analysis methodologies, and perform statistical tests to evaluate the correction methods in various inflow conditions.
Robust and accurate dynamic stall modeling remains one of the most difficult tasks in wind turbine load calculations despite its long research effort in the past. The present paper describes a new
second-order dynamic stall model for wind turbine airfoils. The new model is robust and improves the prediction for the aerodynamic forces and their higher-harmonic effects due to vortex shedding but also provides improved predictions for pitching moment and drag.
Before constructing wind farms we need to know how much energy they will produce. This requires knowledge of long-term wind conditions from either measurements or models. At the US East Coast there are few wind measurements and little experience with offshore wind farms. Therefore, we created a satellite-based high-resolution wind resource map to quantify spatial variations in the wind conditions over potential sites for wind farms and found larger variation than modelling suggested.
The interaction between wind turbines in a wind farm through their wakes is a widely studied research area. Until recently, research was focused on finding constant turbine inputs that optimize the performance of the wind farm. However, recent studies have shown that time-varying, dynamic inputs might be more beneficial. In this paper, the validity of this approach is further investigated by implementing it in scaled wind tunnel experiments and assessing load effects, showing promising results.
Wind turbines rotate clockwise. The rotational direction of the rotor interacts with the nighttime veering wind, resulting in a rotational-direction impact on the wake. In the case of counterclockwise-rotating blades the streamwise velocity in the wake is larger in the Northern Hemisphere whereas it is smaller in the Southern Hemisphere.
In this paper, the influence of optimal wind farm control and optimal wind farm layout is investigated in terms of power production. The capabilities of the developed optimization platform is demonstrated on the Swedish offshore wind farm, Lillgrund. It shows that the expected annual energy production can be increased by 4 % by integrating the wind farm control into the design of the wind farm layout, which is 1.2 % higher than what is achieved by optimizing the layout only.
This paper addresses the topic of far-offshore wind energy exploitation. Far-offshore wind energy exploitation is not feasible with grid-connected floating wind turbines because grid-connection cost, installation cost and O&M cost would be prohibitive. An enabling technology is the energy ship concept, which is described and modeled in the paper. A design of an energy ship is proposed. It is estimated that it could produce 5 GWh per annum of chemical energy (methanol).
Revised manuscript under review for WES(discussion: final response, 8 comments)
Floating offshore wind technology has high potential, but still faces challenges for gaining economic competitiveness to allow commercial market uptake. Hence, design optimization plays a key role, however, the final optimum floater obtained highly depends on the specified optimization problem. Thus, by considering alternative structural realization approaches, not that stringent limitations on the structure and dimensions are required. This way, more innovative floater designs can be captured.
Blade bearings of wind turbines experience unusual loads compared to bearings in other industrial applications, which adds some difficulty to the application of otherwise well-established calculation methods, like fatigue lifetime. As a result, different methods for such calculations can be found in the literature. This paper compares three approaches of varying complexity and comes to the conclusion that the simplest of the methods is very inaccurate compared to the more complex methods.
When assessing wind resources for wind farm development, the first step is to measure the wind from tall meteorological masts. As met masts are expensive, they are not built at every planned wind turbine position but sparsely while trying to minimize the distance. However, this paper shows that it is better to focus on the similarity between the met mast and the wind turbines than the distance. Met masts at similar positions reduce the uncertainty of wind resource assessments significantly.
A method for performing numerical wind resource assessments in the absence of on-site measurements is presented and validated against field measurements. Numerical wind resource assessment is at least 2 orders of magnitude faster and less expensive than using conventional site measurements. This enables analysis of a larger number of projects and thereby increases the chances of discovering the best available sites. The uncertainty in mean wind speed predictions is found to be about 4 %.
This research paper proposes a generic structure of electrical test benches and a novel categorization of test options for experimental analysis of wind turbines and wind power plants. The new proposed test structure would concern the increasing challenges in wind power integration and control including reliability, stability, harmonic interactions, and control performance of WPPs in connection to different types of AC and HVDC transmission systems.
Wind speeds can be measured remotely from the ground with lidars. Their estimates are accurate for mean speeds, but turbulence leads to measurement errors. We predict these errors using computer-generated data and compare lidar measurements with data from a meteorological mast. The comparison shows that deviations depend on wind direction, measurement height, and wind conditions. Our method to reduce the measurement error is successful when the wind is aligned with one of the lidar beams.
An accurate assessment of the wind resource at hub height is necessary for an efficient and bankable wind farm project. Conventional techniques for wind speed vertical extrapolation include a power law and a logarithmic law. Here, we propose a round-robin validation to assess the benefits that a machine-learning-based approach can provide in vertically extrapolating wind speed at a location different from the training site – the most practically useful application for the wind energy industry.
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver is coupled with a structure solver to predict the dynamic response of a horizontal axis wind turbine structure. CFD provides much more accurate and more realistic aerodynamic loads that cannot be achieved by traditional methods such as blade element momentum theory. As a result, the aeroelastic response of the wind turbine structure, taking into account blade–tower interactions, is described in more detail.
With the increase in installed wind capacity, the rotor diameter of wind turbines is becoming larger and larger, and therefore it is necessary to take aeroelasticity into consideration. At the same time, wind turbines are in reality subjected to atmospheric inflow leading to high wind instabilities and fluctuations. Within this work, a high-fidelity chain is used to analyze the effects of both by the use of models of the same turbine with increasing complexity and technical details.
This work characterizes the unsteady aerodynamic response of a scaled version of a 10 MW floating wind turbine subjected to an imposed platform motion. The focus has been put on the simple yet significant motion along the wind's direction (surge). For this purpose, different state-of-the-art aerodynamic codes have been used, validating the outcomes with detailed wind tunnel experiments. This paper sheds light on floating-turbine unsteady aerodynamics for a more conscious controller design.
Wind turbine blade prototypes undergo structural tests before they are used in the field so that any design failure can be detected prior to their operation. In this study, strength characteristics of a small-scale existing 5 m composite wind turbine blade is carried out utilizing the finite-element-method software package Ansys. The results show that the blade exhibits sufficient resistance against buckling. Yet, laminate failure is found to play a major role in the ultimate blade failure.
Wake losses significantly reduce the power production of utility-scale wind farms since all wind turbines are operated in a greedy, individual power maximization fashion. In order to mitigate wake losses, collective wind farm operation strategies use wake steering, in which certain turbines are intentionally misaligned with respect to the incoming wind direction. The control strategy developed is dynamic and closed-loop to adapt to changing atmospheric conditions.
This paper introduces the Tocha wind farm, presents the different layouts adopted in the instrumentation of the wind turbines and shows initial results. At this preliminary stage, the capabilities of the very extensive monitoring layout are demonstrated. The results presented demonstrate the ability of the different monitoring components to track the modal parameters of the system, composed of tower and rotor, and to characterize the internal loads at the tower base and blade roots.
Revised manuscript under review for WES(discussion: final response, 6 comments)
This paper describes the design and field testing of a controller for reducing wake interactions on a wind farm. Reducing the power of some turbines weakens their wakes, allowing other turbines to produce more power, so that the total wind farm power may increase. There have been doubts that this is feasible, but these field tests on a full-scale wind farm have demonstrated that this goal has been achieved, also providing convincing validation of the model used for designing the controller.
Bat carcass surveys guided by likely fall zone distributions require accurate descriptions of carcass aerodynamics. This research introduces a new methodology resulting in the first direct measurements of bat carcass drag coefficients. The drag coefficient for three carcasses of three different species was found to be within a range of 0.70–1.23, with a terminal velocity between 6.63 and 17.57 m s−1. This information is useful for assessing the impact of wind farm projects on wildlife.
Revised manuscript accepted for WES(discussion: closed, 6 comments)
This research paper investigates for the first time the potential of thrust set-point optimization in large wind farms for mitigating gravity-wave induced blockage effects, with the aim of increasing the wind-farm energy extraction. The optimization tool is applied to almost two thousand different atmospheric states. Overall, energy gains above 4 % are observed for 77 % of the cases.
Preprint under review for WES(discussion: final response, 6 comments)
One particular problem with structure operating in seas is the so-called fatigue phenomena. Cyclic loads imposed by waves and winds can cause structural failure after a number of cycles. The tradition method have some limitations.
This paper presents a developed design framework based on Fracture Mechanics for offshore wind turbine support structures which enables the design engineer to make most of available inspection capabilities and optimise the design and inspection, simultaneously.
Meteorological and oceanic datasets are fundamental to the modeling of offshore wind farms. Data quality issues in one such dataset led us to conduct a study to establish whether such issues are more generally present in these datasets. The answer is yes and users should be aware of this. We therefore also investigated how such issues can be avoided. The result is a set of techniques and recommendations for dataset producers, leading to substantial quality improvements with limited extra effort.
Revised manuscript accepted for WES(discussion: closed, 6 comments)
As windfarms are moving further offshore, logistical concepts increasingly include service operation vessels (SOVs) as the prime means of service delivery. Complex SOV operations make their safety management difficult. Existing risk assessments are done piecemeal and potentially lacking completeness when integrated. The paper performs systemic hazard analysis to (1) bring awareness of hazards that may have been overlooked and (2) allow for a preliminary comparison of various operational stages.
This paper considers the modelling of wind turbine main bearings using analytical models. The validity of simplified analytical representations is explored by comparing main-bearing force reactions with those obtained from higher-fidelity 3D finite-element models. Results indicate that good agreement can be achieved between the analytical and 3D models in the case of both non-moment-reacting (such as for a spherical roller bearing) and moment-reacting (such as a tapered roller bearing) set-ups.
The potential of collective offshore wind power is quantified using 16 years of hourly wind speed observations. Wind power intermittency is reduced through a hypothetical electricity grid connecting five sites at the Norwegian continental shelf. We identify large-scale atmospheric situations resulting in long-term periods of power shutdown. Wind power variability and risk measures decrease in an interconnected wind power system.
Revised manuscript under review for WES(discussion: final response, 5 comments)
Wind energy systems work in the atmospheric flows which are gusty coherently. This causes highly variable power productions and high fatigue loads on the system which together holds back further growth of the wind energy market. This study demonstrates an alternative experimental procedure to investigate some extreme wind condition effects on the wind turbine based on the IEC standard. This experiment can be improved and used to develop new control concepts, mitigating the effect of gusts.
Lidar measurements of wakes generated by isolated wind turbines are leveraged for optimal tuning of parameters of four engineering wake models. The lidar measurements are retrieved as ensemble averages of clustered data with incoming wind speed and turbulence intensity. It is shown that the optimally tuned wake models enable a significantly increased accuracy for predictions of wakes. The optimally tuned models are expected to enable generally enhanced performance for wind farms on flat terrain.
Paul Fleming, Jennifer King, Eric Simley, Jason Roadman, Andrew Scholbrock, Patrick Murphy, Julie K. Lundquist, Patrick Moriarty, Katherine Fleming, Jeroen van Dam, Christopher Bay, Rafael Mudafort, David Jager, Jason Skopek, Michael Scott, Brady Ryan, Charles Guernsey, and Dan Brake
This paper presents the results of a field campaign investigating the performance of wake steering applied at a section of a commercial wind farm. It is the second phase of the study for which the first phase was reported in a companion paper (https://wes.copernicus.org/articles/4/273/2019/). The authors implemented wake steering on two turbine pairs and compared results with the latest FLORIS model of wake steering, showing good agreement in overall energy increase.
A huge number of wind turbines have reached their designated lifetime of 20 years.
Most of the turbines installed were overdesigned.
In practice, these turbines could potentially operate longer to increase the energy yield.
For the use case turbine considered in this work, a simple lifetime extension of 8.7 years increases the energy yield by 43.5 %. When the swept rotor area is increased by means of a blade tip extension, the yield is increased by an additional 2.3 %.
This paper validates a method to estimate the vertical wind shear and detect the presence and location of an impinging wake with field data. Shear and wake awareness have multiple uses, from turbine and farm control to monitoring and forecasting.
Results indicate a very good correlation between the estimated vertical shear and the one measured by a met mast and a remarkable ability to locate and track the motion of an impinging wake on an affected rotor.
The paper compares actuator discs in propeller and wind turbine mode. At very low rotational speed, propeller discs have an expanding wake while still energy is put into the wake. The velocity at the disc in the plane containing the axis is practically uniform: a few per mille deviation for wind turbine discs and a few per cent for propeller discs. The deviations are caused by the different strengths of the singularity in the wake boundary vorticity strength at its leading edge.
Sirko Bartholomay, Tom T. B. Wester, Sebastian Perez-Becker, Simon Konze, Christian Menzel, Michael Hölling, Axel Spickenheuer, Joachim Peinke, Christian N. Nayeri, Oliver P. Paschereit, and Kilian Oberleithner
Revised manuscript accepted for WES(discussion: closed, 5 comments)
This paper presents two methods on how to estimate the lift force that is created by a wing. These methods were experimentally assessed in a wind tunnel. Furthermore, an active trailing edge flap, as seen on airplanes for example, is used to alleviate fluctuating loads that are created within the employed wind tunnel. Thereby, an active flow control device is examined that can be potentially serve on wind turbines to lower fatigue or lower the material used for the blades.
This study focuses on coupled computational fluid and structural dynamics simulations of a dynamic structural test of a wind turbine blade, as performed in laboratories. It is found that drag coefficients used for simulations, when planning fatigue tests, underestimate air resistance to the dynamic motion that the blade undergoes during tests. If this is not corrected for, this can result in the forces applied to the blade actually being lower in reality during tests than what was planned.
Results highlight some of the complexities associated with executing and analyzing wind plant control at full scale using brief experimental control periods. Some difficulties include (1) the ability to accurately implement the desired control changes on smaller timescales, (2) identifying reliable data sources and methods to quantify these control changes, and (3) attributing variations in wake structure to turbine control changes rather than a response to the underlying atmospheric conditions.
Europe's offshore wind resource mapping is part of the New European Wind Atlas (NEWA) international consortium effort. This study presents the results of analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ocean wind maps based on Envisat and Sentinel-1 with a brief description of the wind retrieval process and Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) ocean wind maps. Furthermore, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) offshore wind atlas of NEWA is presented.
This project is a comparative study that takes into consideration various airfoils from the Selig, NACA, and Eppler families and models them as diffusers of the wind turbine. The efficiency of the diffuser-augmented wind turbine can be enhanced by optimizing the geometry of the diffuser shape. Their subsequent performance trends were then analyzed, and the lower-performing airfoils were systematically eliminated to leave us with an optimum design.
Currently, the available power estimation is highly dependent on the pre-defined performance parameters of the turbine and the curtailment strategy followed. This paper proposes a model-free approach for a single-input dynamic estimation of the available power using RNNs. The unsteady patterns are represented by LSTM neurons, and the network is adapted to changing inflow conditions via transfer learning. Including highly turbulent flows, the validation shows easy compliance with the grid codes.
Wind evolution is currently of high interest, mainly due to the development of lidar-assisted wind turbine control (LAC). Moreover, 4D stochastic wind field simulations can be made possible by integrating wind evolution into 3D simulations to provide a more realistic simulation environment for LAC. Motivated by these factors, we investigate the potential of Gaussian process regression in the parameterization of a two-parameter wind evolution model using data of two nacelle-mounted lidars.
This study presents results from the Alaiz experiment (ALEX17), featuring the characterization of two cases with flow features ranging from 0.1 to 10 km in complex terrain. We show that multiple scanning lidars can capture in detail a type of atmospheric wave that can happen up to 10 % of the time at this site. The results are in agreement with multiple ground observations and demonstrate the role of atmospheric stability in flow phenomena that need to be better captured by numerical models.
In this paper, a method to determine the angle of attack on a wind turbine rotor blade using a chordwise pressure distribution measurement was applied. The approach used a reduced number of pressure tap data located close to the blade leading edge. The results were compared with the measurements from three external probes mounted on the blade at different radial positions and with analytical calculations.
The main goal of this study is to develop a physical simulation of some extreme wind conditions that are defined by the IEC standard. This has been performed by a hybrid numerical–experimental approach with a relevant scaling. Being able to simulate these dynamic flow fields can generate decisive results for future scholars working in the wind energy sector to make these wind energy systems more reliable and finally helps to accelerate the reduction of the cost of electricity.
Wind power ramps have important characteristics for the planning and integration of wind power production into electricity. We present a new and simple algorithm that detects wind power ramp characteristics. The algorithm classifies wind power production into ramp-ups, ramp-downs, and no-ramps; and it can detect wind power ramp characteristics that show a temporal increasing (decreasing) power capacity.
Revised manuscript under review for WES(discussion: final response, 4 comments)
There are two ways to perform maintenance of a multicomponent system: a corrective maintenance, replace a broken component by a new one, and a preventive maintenance (PM), when some components are replaced in a planned manner before they break down. This article proposes a mathematical model for finding an optimal time to perform the next PM activity and selecting the components which should be replaced. The model is fast to solve, it can be used as a key module in a maintenance scheduling app.
The complexity of wind farm operation increases as the wind farms get larger and larger. Therefore, researchers from three universities have simulated numerous different large wind farms as part of an international benchmark. The study shows how simple engineering models can capture the general trends, but high-fidelity simulations are required in order to quantify the variability and uncertainty associated with power production of the wind farms and hence the potential profitability and risks.
The aerodynamic impact of Gurney flaps is investigated on the rotor blades of the Berlin Research Turbine. The findings of this research project contribute to performance improvements of different-size rotor blades. Gurney flaps are considered a worthwhile passive flow-control device in order to alleviate the adverse effects of both early separation in the inner blade region and leading-edge erosion throughout large parts of the blade span.
Preprint under review for WES(discussion: final response, 4 comments)
This research explores the ground-generation airborne wind energy system (AWES) design space and investigates scaling-effects by varying design parameters such as aircraft wing size, aerodynamic efficiency and mass. Therefore, representative, simulated onshore and offshore wind data is implemented into an AWES trajectory optimization model. We estimate optimal annual energy production and capacity factor as well as a minimal operational lift to weight ratio.