Articles | Volume 7, issue 5
Research article
12 Sep 2022
Research article |  | 12 Sep 2022

Scaling effects of fixed-wing ground-generation airborne wind energy systems

Markus Sommerfeld, Martin Dörenkämper, Jochem De Schutter, and Curran Crawford

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Cited articles

Airborne Wind Europe: Airborne Wind Energy Glossary,, last access: 29 March 2022. a
Ampyx: Ampyx Power BV,, last access: 5 June 2020. a, b, c, d
Andersson, J., Åkesson, J., and Diehl, M.: CasADi: A Symbolic Package for Automatic Differentiation and Optimal Control, in: Recent Advances in Algorithmic Differentiation, edited by: Forth, S., Hovland, P., Phipps, E., Utke, J., and Walther, A., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 297–307,, 2012. a
Andersson, J. A. E., Gillis, J., Horn, G., Rawlings, J. B., and Diehl, M.: CasADi – A software framework for nonlinear optimization and optimal control, Math. Program. Comput., 11, 1–36,, 2019. a
Archer, C. L. and Caldeira, K.: Global Assessment of High-Altitude Wind Power, Energies, 2, 307–319,, 2009. a
Short summary
This research explores the ground-generation airborne wind energy system (AWES) design space and investigates scaling effects by varying design parameters such as aircraft wing size, aerodynamic efficiency and mass. Therefore, representative simulated onshore and offshore wind data are implemented into an AWES trajectory optimization model. We estimate optimal annual energy production and capacity factors as well as a minimal operational lift-to-weight ratio.