Articles | Volume 3, issue 1
Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 231–241, 2018
Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 231–241, 2018

Research article 04 May 2018

Research article | 04 May 2018

Aero-elastic wind turbine design with active flaps for AEP maximization

Michael K. McWilliam et al.

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Cited articles

Ashuri, T., Zaaijer, M., Martins, J., van Bussel, G., and van Kuik, G.: Multidisciplinary design optimization of offshore wind turbines for minimum levelized cost of energy, Renew. Energ., 68, 893–905,, 2014.
Bak, C., Zahle, F., Bitsche, R., Kim, T., Yde, A., Henriksen, L. C., Natarajan, A., and Hansen, M. H.: Description of the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine, Tech. rep., Technical University of Denmark, Institute for Wind Energy, Denmark, 2013.
Barlas, T. K.: Active aerodynamic load control on wind turbine blades: Aeroservoelastic modelling and wind tunnel experiments, PhD thesis, TU Delft, available at: (last access: May 2018), 2011.
Barlas, T. K. and van Kuik, G. A. M.: Review of state of the art in smart rotor control research for wind turbines, Prog. Aerosp. Sci., 46, 1–27, 2010.
Barlas, T. K., Pettas, V., Gertz, D., and Madsen, H. A.: Extreme load alleviation using industrial implementation of active trailing edge flaps in a full design load basis, J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 753, 042001,, 2016a.
Short summary
Maximizing wind energy production is challenging because the winds are always changing. Design optimization was used to explore how flaps can give rotor design engineers greater ability to adapt the rotor for different conditions. For rotors designed for peak efficiency (i.e. older designs) the flap adds 0.5 % improvement in energy production. However, for modern designs that optimize both the performance and the structure, the flap can provide a 1 % improvement.