Articles | Volume 5, issue 2
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 807–818, 2020

Special issue: Wind Energy Science Conference 2019

Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 807–818, 2020

Research article 23 Jun 2020

Research article | 23 Jun 2020

Top-level rotor optimisations based on actuator disc theory

Peter Jamieson

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Cited articles

Bortolotti, P., Tarres, H. C., Dykes, K., Merz, K., Sethuraman, L., Verelst, D., and Zahl, F.: IEA Wind Task 37 on Systems Engineering in Wind Energy, WP2.1 Reference Wind Turbines, available at: (last access: 12 June 2020), 2019. 
Bottasso, C. L., Croce, A., and Sartori, L.: Free-form design of low induction rotors, in: Sandia Wind Turbine Blade Workshop, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, August 2014. 
Chaviaropoulos, P. K. and Sieros, G.: Design of low induction rotors for use in large offshore wind farms, in: EWEA Conf., 10–13 March 2014, Barcelona, 2014. 
Chaviaropoulos, P. K. and Voutsinas S. G.: Moving towards larger rotors – is that a good idea?, in: EWEA Conf., 4–7 February 2013, Vienna, 2013 
Chaviaropoulos, T., Sieros, G., Irisarri, A., Martinez, A., Munduate, X., Grasso, F., Ceyhan, O., Madsen, H. A., Bergami, L., Rasmussen, F., and Zahle, F.: Innwind.EU, WP2. New aerodynamics rotor concepts specifically for very large offshore wind turbines, Deliverable 2.11, edited by: Madsen, H. A., Bergami, L., and Rasmussen, F., European Commission, (last access: 12 June 2020), 2013. 
Short summary
Wind turbine rotors are usually designed to maximize power performance, accepting any loading results. However, from the most basic wind turbine theory, actuator disc theory, two other optimization paths are demonstrated, which may lead to more cost-effective technology – the low-induction rotor where an expanded rotor diameter and some extra power is achieved without increasing the blade root bending moment and the secondary rotor which can provide a very low torque and low-cost drivetrain.