Articles | Volume 6, issue 4
Research article 16 Aug 2021
Research article | 16 Aug 2021
Vertical-axis wind-turbine computations using a 2D hybrid wake actuator-cylinder model
Edgar Martinez-Ojeda et al.
Related subject area
Aerodynamics and hydrodynamicsMaximal power per device area of a ducted turbineHow realistic are the wakes of scaled wind turbine models?Response of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind 15 MW WindCrete and Activefloat floating wind turbines to wind and second-order wavesA simplified model for transition prediction applicable to wind-turbine rotorsExperimental investigation of wind turbine wake and load dynamics during yaw maneuversThe curled wake model: a three-dimensional and extremely fast steady-state wake solver for wind plant flowsSurrogate-based aeroelastic design optimization of tip extensions on a modern 10 MW wind turbineLow-Reynolds-number investigations on the ability of the strip of e-TellTale sensor to detect the flow features over wind turbine blade section: flow stall and reattachment dynamicsPressure-based lift estimation and its application to feedforward load control employing trailing-edge flapsAn impulse-based derivation of the Kutta–Joukowsky equation for wind turbine thrustField test of an active flap system on a full-scale wind turbineDetermination of the angle of attack on a research wind turbine rotor blade using surface pressure measurementsAerodynamic effects of Gurney flaps on the rotor blades of a research wind turbineIdentification of airfoil polars from uncertain experimental measurementsLaminar-turbulent transition characteristics of a 3-D wind turbine rotor blade based on experiments and computationsParametric slat design study for thick-base airfoils at high Reynolds numbersAn improved second-order dynamic stall model for wind turbine airfoilsThe flow past a flatback airfoil with flow control devices: benchmarking numerical simulations against wind tunnel dataOn the velocity at wind turbine and propeller actuator discsCartographing dynamic stall with machine learningTop-level rotor optimisations based on actuator disc theoryTwo-dimensional numerical simulations of vortex-induced vibrations for a cylinder in conditions representative of wind turbine towersValidation and accommodation of vortex wake codes for wind turbine design load calculationsImproving wind farm flow models by learning from operational dataActuator line simulations of wind turbine wakes using the lattice Boltzmann methodDevelopment of a second-order dynamic stall modelInvestigations of aerodynamic drag forces during structural blade testing using high-fidelity fluid–structure interactionBrief communication: A fast vortex-based smearing correction for the actuator lineBrief communication: A double-Gaussian wake modelThe effect of wind direction shear on turbine performance in a wind farm in central IowaImplementation of the blade element momentum model on a polar grid and its aeroelastic load impactBrief communication: Wind-speed-independent actuator disk control for faster annual energy production calculations of wind farms using computational fluid dynamicsPerformance study of the QuLAF pre-design model for a 10 MW floating wind turbineMulti-element ducts for ducted wind turbines: a numerical studyA vortex-based tip/smearing correction for the actuator linePower curve and wake analyses of the Vestas multi-rotor demonstratorQualitative yaw stability analysis of free-yawing downwind turbinesThe aerodynamics of the curled wake: a simplified model in view of flow controlWake behavior and control: comparison of LES simulations and wind tunnel measurementsAerodynamic characterization of a soft kite by in situ flow measurementBlind test comparison on the wake behind a yawed wind turbineAdvanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD)–multi-body simulation (MBS) coupling to assess low-frequency emissions from wind turbinesAn efficient frequency-domain model for quick load analysis of floating offshore wind turbinesProbabilistic forecasting of wind power production losses in cold climates: a case studyDynamic inflow effects in measurements and high-fidelity computationsNumerical analyses and optimizations on the flow in the nacelle region of a wind turbineSimulation of transient gusts on the NREL 5 MW wind turbine using the URANS solver THETAAbout the suitability of different numerical methods to reproduce model wind turbine measurements in a wind tunnel with a high blockage ratioThe second curvature correction for the straight segment approximation of periodic vortex wakesWind tunnel experiments on wind turbine wakes in yaw: effects of inflow turbulence and shear
Nojan Bagheri-Sadeghi, Brian T. Helenbrook, and Kenneth D. Visser
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 1031–1041,Short summary
The design of a ducted wind turbine was optimized to maximize the power per total cross-sectional area of the device. The associated power coefficient was 0.70, which is significantly greater than that obtainable from an open rotor turbine. Furthermore, it was shown that there is an optimal duct length, which is 15 % of the rotor diameter.
Chengyu Wang, Filippo Campagnolo, Helena Canet, Daniel J. Barreiro, and Carlo L. Bottasso
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 961–981,Short summary
This paper quantifies the fidelity of the wakes generated by a small (1 m diameter) scaled wind turbine model operated in a large boundary layer wind tunnel. A detailed scaling analysis accompanied by large-eddy simulations shows that these wakes are very realistic scaled versions of the ones generated by the parent full-scale wind turbine in the field.
Mohammad Youssef Mahfouz, Climent Molins, Pau Trubat, Sergio Hernández, Fernando Vigara, Antonio Pegalajar-Jurado, Henrik Bredmose, and Mohammad Salari
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 867–883,Short summary
This paper introduces the numerical models of two 15 MW floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs) WindCrete and Activefloat. WindCrete is a spar floating platform designed by Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, while Activefloat is a semi-submersible platform designed by Esteyco. The floaters are designed within the Horizon 2020 project COREWIND. Later in the paper, the responses of both models to wind and second-order waves are analysed with an emphasis on the effect of second-order waves.
Thales Fava, Mikaela Lokatt, Niels Sørensen, Frederik Zahle, Ardeshir Hanifi, and Dan Henningson
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 715–736,Short summary
This work develops a simplified framework to predict transition to turbulence on wind-turbine blades. The model is based on the boundary-layer and parabolized stability equations, including rotation and three-dimensionality effects. We show that these effects may promote transition through highly oblique Tollmien–Schlichting (TS) or crossflow modes at low radii, and they should be considered for a correct transition prediction. At high radii, transition tends to occur through 2D TS modes.
Stefano Macrí, Sandrine Aubrun, Annie Leroy, and Nicolas Girard
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 585–599,Short summary
This paper investigates the effect of misaligning a wind turbine on its wake deviation response and on the global load variation of a downstream wind turbine during a positive and negative yaw maneuver, representing a misalignment–realignment scenario. Yaw maneuvers could be used to voluntarily misalign wind turbines when wake steering control is targeted. The aim of this wind farm control strategy is to optimize the overall production of the wind farm and its lifetime.
Luis A. Martínez-Tossas, Jennifer King, Eliot Quon, Christopher J. Bay, Rafael Mudafort, Nicholas Hamilton, Michael F. Howland, and Paul A. Fleming
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 555–570,Short summary
In this paper a three-dimensional steady-state solver for flow through a wind farm is developed and validated. The computational cost of the solver is on the order of seconds for large wind farms. The model is validated using high-fidelity simulations and SCADA.
Thanasis Barlas, Néstor Ramos-García, Georg Raimund Pirrung, and Sergio González Horcas
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 491–504,Short summary
A method to design advanced tip extensions for modern wind turbine blades is presented in this work. The resulting design concept has high potential in terms of actual implementation in a real rotor upscaling with a potential business case in reducing the cost of energy produced by future large wind turbine rotors.
Antoine Soulier, Caroline Braud, Dimitri Voisin, and Bérengère Podvin
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 409–426,Short summary
Monitoring the flow features over wind turbine blades is a challenging task that has become more and more crucial to monitor and/or operate wind turbine blades. This paper demonstrates the ability of an innovative sensor to detect these features over wind turbine blades. The spatiotemporal description of the flow over the surface has been measured over an oscillating blade section and the strip displacement was compared, showing the ability of the sensor to detect stall.
Sirko Bartholomay, Tom T. B. Wester, Sebastian Perez-Becker, Simon Konze, Christian Menzel, Michael Hölling, Axel Spickenheuer, Joachim Peinke, Christian N. Nayeri, Christian Oliver Paschereit, and Kilian Oberleithner
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 221–245,Short summary
This paper presents two methods on how to estimate the lift force that is created by a wing. These methods were experimentally assessed in a wind tunnel. Furthermore, an active trailing-edge flap, as seen on airplanes for example, is used to alleviate fluctuating loads that are created within the employed wind tunnel. Thereby, an active flow control device that can potentially serve on wind turbines to lower fatigue or lower the material used for the blades is examined.
Eric J. Limacher and David H. Wood
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 191–201,Short summary
This paper describes a new analysis of wind turbine thrust based on removing pressure from the equations for the wind flow through a wind turbine rotor. We show that the equation is free from the effects of flow expansion that must accompany the slowing down of the wind through the blades as they extract the kinetic energy. The conditions under which the assumptions are used in blade-element analysis, which is fundamental for wind turbine aerodynamics, are made clear for the first time.
Alejandro Gomez Gonzalez, Peder B. Enevoldsen, Athanasios Barlas, and Helge A. Madsen
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 33–43,Short summary
This work describes a series of tests of active flaps on a 4 MW wind turbine. The measurements were performed between October 2017 and June 2019 using two different active flap configurations on a blade of the turbine, showing a potential to manipulate the loading of the turbine between 5 % and 10 %. This project is performed with the aim of demonstrating a technology with the potential of reducing the levelized cost of energy for wind power.
Rodrigo Soto-Valle, Sirko Bartholomay, Jörg Alber, Marinos Manolesos, Christian Navid Nayeri, and Christian Oliver Paschereit
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 1771–1792,Short summary
In this paper, a method to determine the angle of attack on a wind turbine rotor blade using a chordwise pressure distribution measurement was applied. The approach used a reduced number of pressure tap data located close to the blade leading edge. The results were compared with the measurements from three external probes mounted on the blade at different radial positions and with analytical calculations.
Jörg Alber, Rodrigo Soto-Valle, Marinos Manolesos, Sirko Bartholomay, Christian Navid Nayeri, Marvin Schönlau, Christian Menzel, Christian Oliver Paschereit, Joachim Twele, and Jens Fortmann
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 1645–1662,Short summary
The aerodynamic impact of Gurney flaps is investigated on the rotor blades of the Berlin Research Turbine. The findings of this research project contribute to performance improvements of different-size rotor blades. Gurney flaps are considered a worthwhile passive flow-control device in order to alleviate the adverse effects of both early separation in the inner blade region and leading-edge erosion throughout large parts of the blade span.
Chengyu Wang, Filippo Campagnolo, and Carlo L. Bottasso
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 1537–1550,Short summary
A new method is described to identify the aerodynamic characteristics of blade airfoils directly from operational data of the turbine. Improving on a previously published approach, the present method is based on a new maximum likelihood formulation that includes errors both in the outputs and the inputs. The method is demonstrated on the identification of the polars of small-scale turbines for wind tunnel testing.
Özge Sinem Özçakmak, Helge Aagaard Madsen, Niels Nørmark Sørensen, and Jens Nørkær Sørensen
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 1487–1505,Short summary
Accurate prediction of the laminar-turbulent transition process is critical for design and prediction tools to be used in the industrial design process, particularly for the high Reynolds numbers experienced by modern wind turbines. Laminar-turbulent transition behavior of a wind turbine blade section is investigated in this study by means of field experiments and 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) rotor simulations.
Julia Steiner, Axelle Viré, Francesco Benetti, Nando Timmer, and Richard Dwight
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 1075–1095,Short summary
The manuscript deals with the aerodynamic design of slat elements for thick-base airfoils at high Reynolds numbers using integral boundary layer and computational fluid dynamics models. The results highlight aerodynamic benefits such as high stall angle, low roughness sensitivity, and higher aerodynamic efficiency than standard single-element configurations. However, this is accompanied by a steep drop in lift post-stall and potentially issues related to the structural design of the blade.
Galih Bangga, Thorsten Lutz, and Matthias Arnold
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 1037–1058,Short summary
Robust and accurate dynamic stall modeling remains one of the most difficult tasks in wind turbine load calculations despite its long research effort in the past. The present paper describes a new second-order dynamic stall model for wind turbine airfoils. The new model is robust and improves the prediction for the aerodynamic forces and their higher-harmonic effects due to vortex shedding but also provides improved predictions for pitching moment and drag.
George Papadakis and Marinos Manolesos
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 911–927,Short summary
Flatback airfoils are used in the root region of wind turbine blades since they have several structural and aerodynamic benefits. Several flow control devices are incorporated to mitigate the effects of vortex shedding in the wake of such airfoils. In this work, two different numerical approaches are compared to wind tunnel measurements to assess the suitability of each method for predicting the performance of the flow control devices in terms of loads and unsteady characteristics.
Gijs A. M. van Kuik
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 855–865,Short summary
The paper compares actuator discs in propeller and wind turbine mode. At very low rotational speed, propeller discs have an expanding wake while still energy is put into the wake. The velocity at the disc in the plane containing the axis is practically uniform: a few per mille deviation for wind turbine discs and a few per cent for propeller discs. The deviations are caused by the different strengths of the singularity in the wake boundary vorticity strength at its leading edge.
Matthew Lennie, Johannes Steenbuck, Bernd R. Noack, and Christian Oliver Paschereit
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 819–838,Short summary
This study presents a marriage of unsteady aerodynamics and machine learning. When airfoils are subjected to high inflow angles, the flow no longer follows the surface and the flow is said to be separated. In this flow regime, the forces experienced by the airfoil are highly unsteady. This study uses a range of machine learning techniques to extract infomation from test data to help us understand the flow regime and makes recomendations on how to model it.
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 807–818,Short summary
Wind turbine rotors are usually designed to maximize power performance, accepting any loading results. However, from the most basic wind turbine theory, actuator disc theory, two other optimization paths are demonstrated, which may lead to more cost-effective technology – the low-induction rotor where an expanded rotor diameter and some extra power is achieved without increasing the blade root bending moment and the secondary rotor which can provide a very low torque and low-cost drivetrain.
Axelle Viré, Adriaan Derksen, Mikko Folkersma, and Kumayl Sarwar
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 793–806,Short summary
Vortex-induced vibrations are structural vibrations that can occur due to the shedding of flow vortices when a fluid flow passes around a structure. Here, conditions specific to wind turbine towers are investigated numerically. The work highlights a complex interplay between structural and fluid dynamics. In particular, certain conditions lead to a continuous alternation between self-exciting and self-limiting vortex-induced vibrations, linked to a change in the sign of the aerodynamic damping.
Koen Boorsma, Florian Wenz, Koert Lindenburg, Mansoor Aman, and Menno Kloosterman
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 699–719,Short summary
The present publication has contributed towards making vortex wake models ready for application to certification load calculations. The reduction in flapwise blade root moment fatigue loading using vortex wake models instead of the blade element momentum method has been verified using dedicated CFD simulations. A validation effort against a long-term field measurement campaign featuring 2.5 MW turbines has confirmed the improved prediction of unsteady load characteristics by vortex wake models.
Johannes Schreiber, Carlo L. Bottasso, Bastian Salbert, and Filippo Campagnolo
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 647–673,Short summary
The paper describes a new method that uses standard historical operational data and reconstructs the flow at the rotor disk of each turbine in a wind farm. The method is based on a baseline wind farm flow and wake model, augmented with error terms that are
learnedfrom operational data using an ad hoc system identification approach. Both wind tunnel experiments and real data from a wind farm at a complex terrain site are used to show the capabilities of the new method.
Henrik Asmuth, Hugo Olivares-Espinosa, and Stefan Ivanell
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 623–645,Short summary
The presented work investigates the potential of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for numerical simulations of wind turbine wakes. The LBM is a rather novel, alternative approach for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) that allows for significantly faster simulations. The study shows that the method provides similar results when compared to classical CFD approaches while only requiring a fraction of the computational demand.
Niels Adema, Menno Kloosterman, and Gerard Schepers
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 577–590,Short summary
It is crucial to model dynamic stall accurately to reduce inaccuracies in predicting fatigue and extreme loads. This paper investigates a new dynamic stall model. Improvements are proposed based on experiments. The updated model shows significant improvements over the initial model; however, further validation and research are still required. This updated model might be incorporated into future wind turbine design codes and will hopefully reduce inaccuracies in predicted wind turbine loads.
Christian Grinderslev, Federico Belloni, Sergio González Horcas, and Niels Nørmark Sørensen
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 543–560,Short summary
This study focuses on coupled computational fluid and structural dynamics simulations of a dynamic structural test of a wind turbine blade, as performed in laboratories. It is found that drag coefficients used for simulations, when planning fatigue tests, underestimate air resistance to the dynamic motion that the blade undergoes during tests. If this is not corrected for, this can result in the forces applied to the blade actually being lower in reality during tests than what was planned.
Alexander R. Meyer Forsting, Georg R. Pirrung, and Néstor Ramos-García
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 349–353,Short summary
Simulations of wind farms allow the estimation of the forces acting on the turbines and thus their lifetime and power production. Representing the actual geometric shape of turbines in a realistic atmospheric flow is computationally expensive; therefore they are modelled in a simplified manner. Unfortunately, these simplifications negatively impact the estimated forces. We developed an open-source aerodynamic model that corrects the forces, giving more accurate estimates of lifetime and power.
Johannes Schreiber, Amr Balbaa, and Carlo L. Bottasso
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 237–244,Short summary
An analytical wake model with a double-Gaussian velocity distribution is used to improve on a similar formulation by Keane et al (2016). The choice of a double-Gaussian shape function is motivated by the behavior of the near-wake region that is observed in numerical simulations and experimental measurements. The model is calibrated and validated using large eddy simulations replicating scaled wind turbine experiments, yielding improved results with respect to a classical single-Gaussian profile.
Miguel Sanchez Gomez and Julie K. Lundquist
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 125–139,Short summary
Wind turbine performance depends on various atmospheric conditions. We quantified the effect of the change in wind direction and speed with height (direction and speed wind shear) on turbine power at a wind farm in Iowa. Turbine performance was affected during large direction shear and small speed shear conditions and favored for the opposite scenarios. These effects make direction shear significant when analyzing the influence of different atmospheric variables on turbine operation.
Helge Aagaard Madsen, Torben Juul Larsen, Georg Raimund Pirrung, Ang Li, and Frederik Zahle
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 1–27,Short summary
We show in the paper that the upscaling of turbines has led to new requirements in simulation of the unsteady aerodynamic forces by the engineering blade element momentum (BEM) model, originally developed for simulation of the aerodynamics of propellers and helicopters. We present a new implementation of the BEM model on a polar grid which can be characterized as an engineering actuator disc model. The aeroelastic load impact of the new BEM implementation is analyzed and quantified.
Maarten Paul van der Laan, Søren Juhl Andersen, and Pierre-Elouan Réthoré
Wind Energ. Sci., 4, 645–651,Short summary
Wind farm layouts are designed by simple engineering wake models, which are fast to compute but also include a high uncertainty. Higher-fidelity models, such as Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes, can be used to verify optimized wind farm layouts, although the computational costs are high due to the large number of cases that are needed to calculate the annual energy production. This article presents a new wind turbine control method to speed up the high-fidelity simulations by a factor of 2–3.
Freddy J. Madsen, Antonio Pegalajar-Jurado, and Henrik Bredmose
Wind Energ. Sci., 4, 527–547,Short summary
This paper presents a comparison study of the simplified model QuLAF (Quick Load Analysis of Floating wind turbines) and FAST for the planar version of various design load cases, in order to investigate how accurate results can be obtained from this simplified model. The overall analysis shows that QuLAF is generally very good at estimating the bending moment at the tower base and the floater motions, whereas the nacelle acceleration is generally underpredicted.
Vinit V. Dighe, Francesco Avallone, Ozer Igra, and Gerard van Bussel
Wind Energ. Sci., 4, 439–449,Short summary
Multi-element ducts are investigated to further improve the aerodynamic performance of ducted wind turbines. CFD simulations are performed for a multi-element duct geometry consisting of a duct and a flap; the goal is to evaluate the effects on the aerodynamic performance of the radial gap length and the deflection angle of the flap. Increasing the radial gap length results in an augmentation of the total thrust generated by the DWT, whereas a larger deflection angle has an opposite effect.
Alexander R. Meyer Forsting, Georg Raimund Pirrung, and Néstor Ramos-García
Wind Energ. Sci., 4, 369–383,Short summary
The actuator line was intended as a lifting line technique for CFD applications. In this paper we prove – theoretically and practically – that smearing the forces of the actuator line in the flow domain leads to smeared velocity fields. By combining a near-wake representation of the trailed vorticity with a viscous vortex core model, the missing induction from the smeared velocity is recovered and a lifting line for CFD simulations established.
Maarten Paul van der Laan, Søren Juhl Andersen, Néstor Ramos García, Nikolas Angelou, Georg Raimund Pirrung, Søren Ott, Mikael Sjöholm, Kim Hylling Sørensen, Julio Xavier Vianna Neto, Mark Kelly, Torben Krogh Mikkelsen, and Gunner Christian Larsen
Wind Energ. Sci., 4, 251–271,Short summary
Over the past few decades, single-rotor wind turbines have increased in size with the blades being extended toward lengths of 100 m. An alternative upscaling of turbines can be achieved by using multi-rotor wind turbines. In this article, measurements and numerical simulations of a utility-scale four-rotor wind turbine show that rotor interaction leads to increased energy production and faster wake recovery; these findings may allow for the design of wind farms with improved energy production.
Gesine Wanke, Morten Hartvig Hansen, and Torben Juul Larsen
Wind Energ. Sci., 4, 233–250,Short summary
In this paper the results of the stability analysis of a free-yawing downwind turbine are shown and the turbine's ability to align the rotor passively with the wind direction is investigated. The results show that a tilt angle causes the equilibrium yaw position of free-yawing downwind to be non-zero. It is shown that an increase in cone angle can stabilize the free-yaw mode significantly, while blade flapwise flexibility will increase the risk of an instability of the free-yaw mode.
Luis A. Martínez-Tossas, Jennifer Annoni, Paul A. Fleming, and Matthew J. Churchfield
Wind Energ. Sci., 4, 127–138,Short summary
A new control-oriented model is developed to compute the wake of a wind turbine under yaw. The model uses a simplified version of the Navier–Stokes equation with assumptions. Good agreement is found between the model-proposed and large eddy simulations of a wind turbine in yaw.
Jiangang Wang, Chengyu Wang, Filippo Campagnolo, and Carlo L. Bottasso
Wind Energ. Sci., 4, 71–88,Short summary
This paper describes an LES approach for the simulation of wind turbines and their wakes. The simulation model is used to develop a complete digital copy of experiments performed with scaled wind turbines in a boundary layer wind tunnel, including the passive generation of a sheared turbulent flow. Numerical results are compared with experimental measurements, with a good overall matching between the two.
Johannes Oehler and Roland Schmehl
Wind Energ. Sci., 4, 1–21,Short summary
We present an experimental method for aerodynamic characterization of flexible membrane kites by in situ measurement of the relative flow, while performing complex flight maneuvers. We find that the aerodynamics of this type of wing depend not only on the angle of attack, but also on the level of aerodynamic loading and the aeroelastic deformation. We recommend using the relative power setting of the kite as a secondary influencing parameter.
Franz Mühle, Jannik Schottler, Jan Bartl, Romain Futrzynski, Steve Evans, Luca Bernini, Paolo Schito, Martín Draper, Andrés Guggeri, Elektra Kleusberg, Dan S. Henningson, Michael Hölling, Joachim Peinke, Muyiwa S. Adaramola, and Lars Sætran
Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 883–903,
Levin Klein, Jonas Gude, Florian Wenz, Thorsten Lutz, and Ewald Krämer
Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 713–728,Short summary
To get a better understanding of noise emissions from wind turbines at frequencies far below the audible range, simulations with increasing complexity were conducted. Consistent with the literature, it has been found that acoustic emission is dominated by the noise generated when the rotor blades pass the tower. These specific frequencies are less dominant in the structure-borne emission. Considering aerodynamic forces acting on the tower is important for the correct modeling of emissions.
Antonio Pegalajar-Jurado, Michael Borg, and Henrik Bredmose
Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 693–712,Short summary
This paper presents a simplified numerical model to quickly predict motion and loads of floating offshore wind turbines. Hydrodynamic, aerodynamic and mooring loads are extracted from higher-fidelity numerical tools. Without calibration, the model can predict with good accuracy the motions of the system in real wind and wave conditions. Loads at the tower base are estimated with errors between 0.2 % and 11.3 %. The model can simulate between 1300 and 2700 times faster than real time.
Jennie Molinder, Heiner Körnich, Esbjörn Olsson, Hans Bergström, and Anna Sjöblom
Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 667–680,Short summary
This study shows that using probabilistic forecasting can improve next-day production forecasts for wind energy in cold climates. Wind turbines can suffer from severe production losses due to icing on the turbine blades. Short-range forecasts including the icing-related production losses are therefore valuable when planning for next-day energy production. Probabilistic forecasting can also provide a likelihood for icing and icing-related production losses.
Georg Raimund Pirrung and Helge Aagaard Madsen
Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 545–551,Short summary
A wind turbine sees an overshoot in loading after a step change in pitch angle because the wake takes some time to reach a new equilibrium. The time constants of this dynamic inflow effect are expected to decrease significantly towards the blade tip. This radial dependency has not been found to the expected extent in previous analyses of force measurements from the NASA Ames Phase VI experiment. In the present article the findings from the experiment are explained based on a simple vortex model.
Pascal Weihing, Tim Wegmann, Thorsten Lutz, Ewald Krämer, Timo Kühn, and Andree Altmikus
Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 503–531,Short summary
This research poses the question of whether rotor performance can be increased by an optimized design of the nacelle. For this purpose, the main geometrical parameters of the nacelle, such as the diameter, the relative position of the blade and the detailed shape in the junction of the blade, are investigated by means of computational fluid dynamics. By implementing a fairing-type shape in the junction, the detrimental flow separation in the inner part of the rotor could be eliminated.
Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 461–474,Short summary
The capability of the DLR flow solver to simulate a wind turbine operating in an extreme gust event is presented by propagating the extreme gust through the flow field. The behaviour of the aerodynamic rotor loading and flow characteristics on the rotor blades were evaluated. The long-term perspective is to improve the understanding of the effects of instationary aerodynamics on the wind turbine. This will help to improve wind turbine design methods.
Annette Claudia Klein, Sirko Bartholomay, David Marten, Thorsten Lutz, George Pechlivanoglou, Christian Navid Nayeri, Christian Oliver Paschereit, and Ewald Krämer
Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 439–460,Short summary
The paper describes the experimental and numerical investigation of a model wind turbine with a diameter of 3.0 m in a narrow wind tunnel. The objectives of the study are the provision of validation data, the comparison and evaluation of methods of different fidelity, and the assessment of the influence of wind tunnel walls. It turned out that the accordance between the experimental and numerical results is good, but the wind tunnel walls have to be taken into account for the present setup.
David H. Wood
Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 345–352,Short summary
The vortices in the wakes of wind turbines are often approximated by short, straight vortex segments, which cannot reproduce the curvature singularity in the induced velocity. They can also have a second error due to the periodicity: the vortices return to close proximity of the point at which the velocity is calculated. The second error is assessed by representing the far wake of a turbine as a row of vortex rings. The error is quantified and a simple correction is developed.
Jan Bartl, Franz Mühle, Jannik Schottler, Lars Sætran, Joachim Peinke, Muyiwa Adaramola, and Michael Hölling
Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 329–343,Short summary
Wake steering by yawing a wind turbine offers great potential to increase the wind farm power production. A model scale experiment in a controlled wind tunnel environment has been performed to map the wake flow's complex velocity distribution for different inflow conditions. A non-uniform sheared inflow was observed to affect the wake flow only insignificantly. The level of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the inflow, however, influenced the wake's velocity distribution to a higher degree.
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A model for computing vertical-axis wind turbine farms was developed using computational fluid dynamics open-source software. This model has the potential of evaluating wind farm configurations which can lead to a higher annual energy yield. Such configurations have not been studied thoroughly due to the fact that most analysis tools are computationally expensive. This model can also be run in personal computers within a matter of minutes or hours depending on the number of turbines.
A model for computing vertical-axis wind turbine farms was developed using computational fluid...