Articles | Volume 6, issue 5
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 1227–1245, 2021
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 1227–1245, 2021
Research article
16 Sep 2021
Research article | 16 Sep 2021

Statistical impact of wind-speed ramp events on turbines, via observations and coupled fluid-dynamic and aeroelastic simulations

Mark Kelly et al.

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Cited articles

Aagard Madsen, H., Bak, C., Paulsen, U. S., Guanaa, M., Fuglsang, P., Romblad, J., Olesen, N. A., Enevoldsen, P., Laursen, J., and Jensen, L.: The DAN-AERO MW Experiments Final report, Tech. Rep. Risø-R-1726-(EN), Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, 2010. 
Abkar, M. and Porté-Agel, F.: The Effect of Free-Atmosphere Stratification on Boundary-Layer Flow and Power Output from Very Large Wind Farms, Energies, 6, 2339–2361,, 2013. 
Alcayaga Román, L. A.: From Gusts to Turbulence: Vertical Structure (Fra Vindstød Til Turbulens: Vertikale Struktur), MSc Thesis, Danish Technical University/Oldenburg University, 2017. 
Allaerts, D. and Meyers, J.: Wind farm performance in conventionally neutral atmospheric boundary layers with varying inversion strengths, J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 524, 012114,, 2014. 
Andersen, S. J.: Simulation and Prediction of Wakes and Wake Interaction in Wind Farms, PhD Dissertation, Danish Technical University, 2014. 
Short summary
Via 11 years of measurements, we made a representative ensemble of wind ramps in terms of acceleration, mean speed, and shear. Constrained turbulence and large-eddy simulations were coupled to an aeroelastic model for each ensemble member. Ramp acceleration was found to dominate the maxima of thrust-associated loads, with a ramp-induced increase of 45 %–50 % plus ~ 3 % per 0.1 m/s2 of bulk ramp acceleration magnitude. The LES indicates that the ramps (and such loads) persist through the farm.